Analisis del cuadro del matrimonio arnolfini

ANÁLISIS DE OBRA PICTÓRICA

TÍTULO. EL MATRIMONIO ARNOLFINI.

AUTOR Y ÉPOCA. Realizada por Jan van Eyck en el año 1434. Pertenece a los primeros flamencos del Gótico en Flandes.

CONTEXTO ESPACIO-TEMPORAL. En el siglo XV, el acceso de la burguesía al mundo del comercio provocó un gran cambio en la sociedad. Concretamente en este mundo flamenco, los comerciantes burgueses fueron el motorimpulsador de una gran máquina de hacer dinero. Fue costumbre entre ellos el decorar sus casas con ricos lienzo donde pintaban los retratos, pues era una manera de deleite, pero también de reconocimiento y status. De tal modo, y siguiendo este gusto Jan van Eyck es el encargado de retratar a esta pareja. Ellos son Giovanni Arnolfini y su esposa Jeanne, rico comerciante establecido en la ciudad belgade Brujas.

MÉTODO UTILIZADO. Obra realizada al óleo, mediante pincel, teniendo el óleo como base un estrato de aceite de trementina, usado como disolvente y el aceite de linaza como aglutinante, todo esto permite una gran gama de colores aquí utilizada. Esto pues permite una gran perfección de este tipo de arte.

DESCRIPCIÓN GENERAL. Se nos presenta a la pareja, Giovanni Arnolfini y Jeannede Cenani, en el momento de contraer matrimonio. Ambos personajes, retratados en primer plano, se sitúan en una estancia con suelo de madera, e iluminada por una ventana que se abre a la izquierda. A los pies de la pareja aparece un perro y en un segundo plano pueden observarse la esquina de una alfombra y el dosel de una cama. En el centro de la composición figura una lámpara que cuelga del techoy, en la pared del fondo, un espejo en el que se refleja todo el contenido de la habitación, incluido el propio autor. A su izquierda cuelgan unos rosarios y, sobre el marco, se puede leer una inscripción en latín, en caracteres góticos, que indica: «Johannes de Eyck fuit hic, 1434» (Jan van Eyck estuvo aquí, 1434).
Giovanni Arnolfini aparece retratado en actitud seria, ricamente ataviadoen color oscuro, con capa y amplio sombrero.
[pic]Su mano derecha, levantada, parece jurar o bendecir, mientras la izquierda sostiene la de su esposa, también ricamente vestida en color verde vivo, con velo blanco. Su abultado vientre, sobre el que apoya su otra mano, parece manifestar con claridad que se encuentra embarazada, pero esto no es cierto ya que el espejo simboliza la pureza de lamujer que acude virgen al matrimonio, esto es el “Speculum sine maculam”, por lo que el vientre abultado no debe engañarnos pues se trata de una imagen habitual en las pinturas de la época y que debe entenderse como una iconografía habitual, que alude a su valoración universal de la mujer como madre.
Además, se pueden observar las características propias de la pintura flamenca de esos años. Porun lado el detallismo minucioso en cada objeto representado, rasgo por el cual los maestros flamencos se sintieron siempre sumamente orgullosos. Por otro lado una gran dosis de naturalismo, pues el artista se ha preocupado enormemente por retratar la realidad, aunque a veces esta se nos haga lejana por su excesiva exactitud. Y finalmente, una especial captación de la luz y la perspectiva,adelantándose a los grandes maestros flamencos del siglo XVII como Vermeer. Una suave luz envuelve la escena, dando de lleno en el rostro femenino, mientras se atenúa en torno al del mercader.

SIMBOLISMO. El cuadro de los Arnolfini ha originado una gran controversia entre los historiadores del arte, por la gran cantidad de elementos simbólicos que incluye y la dificultad de interpretación de algunos deellos. Es una alegoría del matrimonio, este cuadro actúa como un documento representativo de un enlace. En aquellos años, los matrimonios no siempre debían pasar por una iglesia para ser legales sino que podían hacerse uniones privadas siempre que existiera un documento que lo atestiguara y algunos testigos que corroboraran dicho acontecimiento. Así, esta obra, estaría representando ese…

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