Antecedente bíblico de los juicios orales

En cuanto a la oralidad, un digno ejemplo en la solución de un conflicto, nos lo da el pasaje bíblico narrado en el libro de los Reyes, en donde elpueblo hebreo conciente de que la función de juzgar era agotadora, eligió entre todo Israel a hombres enérgicos, nombrándolos jefes del pueblo: tribunos, centuriones, jefes de cincuenta y de diez.Estos personajes juzgaban al pueblo a toda hora, llevando los asuntos de mayor importancia a Moisés y, resolviendo ellos, las cuestiones más fáciles.
El procedimiento en ese entonces era público yoral, lo cual se constata del célebre juicio de Salomón en donde resuelve la controversia en cuanto a la maternidad que dos mujeres disputaban respecto de un menor. Tal y como se desprende de dichopasaje, dos mujeres se presentan ante Salomón disputando la maternidad de un niño, mencionando que ambas vivían en la misma casa y habían parido cada una un hijo con tres días de diferencia. Estandosolas, es decir, no habiendo testigos, uno de los niños murió ahogado durante la noche, a consecuencia de que la propia madre se acostó sobre él estando dormida. Por la mañana, al darse cuenta de losucedido, la mujer aprovechó que la otra madre dormía, para cambiarle su hijo muerto por el hijo vivo. Al despertar la otra mujer y al momento de amamantarlo se da cuenta del cambio y es en ese momentoque surge el conflicto. Ya ante la presencia de Salomón, y con motivo de la insistencia de ambas madres en el sentido de que el hijo era de ambas, Salomón toma la decisión “equitativa” de partir el niñoen dos y dar a cada una de las mujeres la mitad; a la madre del hijo muerto no le afecta la decisión, sin embargo la verdadera madre, en un acto de amor, prefiere que el niño viva aun cuando sea allado de la otra mujer, por lo cual Salomón, ante esta circunstancia reveladora, entrega el niño a la mujer que prefirió sacrificar su maternidad, y quien es la verdadera madre. Lo anterior, muestra…

25 thoughts on “Antecedente bíblico de los juicios orales

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