Cine

?TEMA 1. PLANTEAMIENTOS GENERALES DE LA PROPAGANDA EN LA II GM
La actividad propagandística de los gobiernos estuvo en plena vigencia durante el periodo de entreguerras. En la II Guerra Mundial se utilizó como apoyo a las acciones de política internacional. El caso más destacado es la radio. El cine y los noticiarios filmados fueron los medios de comunicación social de la clase trabajadora. Engeneral, se consigue la eficacia de la censura y la propaganda.
La organización de la propaganda en Gran Bretaña, Francia y Estados Unidos tenía algunos elementos en común. El más destacado fue la existencia previa de regímenes liberales que se afirmaban como defensores de la libertad de expresión, aunque existieran controles de censura por parte de los gobiernos.
Propaganda británica: Suobjetivo era persuadir a los norteamericanos para que ayudaran. Su situación era buena, tanto en el frente exterior como en el interior, porque Gran Bretaña disponía de grandes recursos persuasivos y su sistema de comunicación era el más desarrollado. El desafío era utilizar adecuadamente la superioridad de recursos. Destaca la Agencia Reuter, que desarrolló una censura eficaz y campañas de persuasiónintensas. Además, puso en marcha un gran dispositivo propagandístico, con la coordinación de departamentos ministeriales. En 1941 se creó la Political Warfere Executive (PWE), que coordinó todas las acciones de información británica en el exterior (aliados, neutrales y enemigos). Al principio tuvo dificultades para coordinar el sistema informativo pero poco a poco puso en marcha un sistemainformativo mixto, con varios medios y las cosas funcionaron bien. La prensa escrita será abundante y variada, la radio poderosa (BBC) y los noticiarios cinematográficos ascenderán a cinco. Aunque el público sólo recibía las noticias que la censura y el control de Reuter permitía, las informaciones eran básicamente ciertas y, por lo tanto, aumentaba la confianza en el Gobierno.
Métodos modernos: USA: Seproduce la entrada de USA en la guerra. El objetivo de su propaganda fue la motivación positiva para el esfuerzo bélico, mediante la radio y el cine, puesto que la mayoría de la población veía la intervención como una misión extraña.
En 1942 se creó la OWI, Office of War Information, en la que se integraron agencias gubernamentales como Domestic Branch (frente interior) y Overseas Branch(exterior), que controlaban la política cinematográfica. Produjeron documentos didácticos para difundir unas costumbres que se adaptasen a las necesidades de la guerra. Un ejemplo sería “Fuel Conservation”, en el que los dirigentes estatales exigían una producción responsable.
La oposición al nazismo fue clara desde el principio, puesto que en 1939 se estrenaron unas nueve películas a este respecto.Destaca `Confesiones de un espía nazi’, de A. Litvak, muy influyente.
Las grandes productoras centraron su atención en la guerra con la entrada de USA. “Foreign correspondences”, de Hitchcock y “The Great Dictator” de Chaplin son verdaderas obras maestras en esta línea.
Propaganda vs. Democracia: Francia no hizo un uso sistemático de la propaganda en entreguerras, debido a la carencia de unaorganización propagandística institucional. Sólo cuando el estallido parecía evidente, se articuló una estructura con fines persuasivos. Es un caso particular en el uso del cine informativo y propagandístico en la II GM, ya que fue un país ocupado. Interesa conocer si el cine estuvo al servicio de Vichy o de los ocupantes.
4. UNIÓN SOVIÉTICA: La propaganda se instaura como forma de vida en la UniónSoviética. Estaba centralizada en el Departamento de Propaganda y Agitación del Comité Central del PC. Los contenidos de la propaganda apelaban al sentimiento patriótico ruso, moral alta, todo mediante eslóganes. El despliegue tuvo un resultado excelente en la creación de opinión. La idea principal trasmitida era la Unión Soviética como patria del proletariado internacional. Hubo una ausencia de…

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