Clases de conocimiento

2.1 Diferentes clases de conocimiento

Por Rosalba Casas y Jorge Dettmer

Foray y Lundvall (1996:19-20), han formulado una distinción entre cuatro diferentes clases de conocimiento:

i)Know-what (saber qué). Se refiere al conocimiento acerca de ?hechos?. Es cercano a lo que normalmente llamamos ?información?. Existen muchas áreas en las cuales los expertos (entre los que se encuentran losabogados y los médicos), deben poseer mucho de este tipo de conocimiento para realizar adecuadamente su trabajo.

ii) Know-why (saber por qué). Se refiere ?al conocimiento científico de losprincipios y leyes de movimiento en la naturaleza, en la mente humana y en la sociedad?. Este tipo de conocimiento ha sido muy importante para el desarrollo tecnológico en ciertas áreas, tales como lasindustrias química, eléctrica y electrónica. Para acceder a esta clase de conocimiento se requiere frecuentemente del avance de la tecnología y la reducción de la frecuencia de errores en las pruebas deensayo y error. Según Foray y Lundvall, la producción y reproducción de know-why es llevada a cabo en organizaciones especializadas, ya sea a través del reclutamiento de personal entrenadocientíficamente o mediante el contacto directo con los laboratorios de las universidades.

iii) Know-how (saber cómo). Se refiere a la habilidad y/o capacidad de hacer algo. Esta puede relacionarse con laproducción, pero también con otras actividades en el ámbito económico. Según Foray y Lundvall, no solamente la ?gente práctica? necesita poseer estas habilidades.

iv) Know-who (saber quién). Se refiere ala mezcla de diferentes clases de habilidades, incluidas las llamadas habilidades sociales, que permiten tener acceso al experto y usar su conocimiento eficientemente. Saber quién, implica informaciónacerca de quién sabe qué, y quién sabe cómo hacer qué. Según Foray y Lundvall, esta clase de conocimiento es importante en la economía moderna, donde hay una necesidad de acceder a muchas…

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