Clases sociales

La teoría de sistemas construida por Nicolas Luhmann parte de asumir la complejidad siempre creciente de las sociedades contemporáneas como una realidad insoslayable que pone contra la pared a lasclásicas concepciones de la sociedad. Su pretensión es ambiciosa en el sentido de intentar elaborar una teoría general que no se limite a una teoría de la sociedad sino que tenga aplicación en otrasesferas, aunque paralelamente, y como primer evidencia quizás de lo paradójico de su pensamiento, puede afirmarse que resigna inclinaciones totalizantes al incorporar la temporalidad, la contingencia y elcaos (en oposición a la tendencia «natural» al equilibrio) como componentes intrínsecos de su teoría.

El núcleo de la teoría de Luhmann son las sociedades contemporáneas. Incorpora los avancesrecientes de las teorías de los sistemas para explicar la complejidad creciente de las sociedades modernas. Para Luhmann existen básicamente tres sistemas (vivos, psíquicos, sociales) que se diferencianpor su propio tipo de operación y el modo en que reducen la complejidad. Para reducir la complejidad los sistemas utilizan la diferencia como principio orientador y principio de procesamiento de lainformación. La reducción de la complejidad se realiza a través de una estabilización interna/externa. Para sobrevivir un sistema debe establecer una relación concordante entre su propia complejidadcon la del medio ambiente.

Los sistemas para Luhmann son cerrados sobre sí mismos, es decir, son autoreferentes y autopoieticos, en tanto son capaces de crear sus propias estructuras y componentes.Esta característica de los sistemas cuestionan la relación todo/parte para incluir una nueva diferenciación sistema/entorno. Por otra parte no existe como en Parsons jerarquía entre sistemas enfunción de las relaciones de control de uno sobre otro. La relación entre sistemas en Luhmann es contingente.

El fenómeno que observa Luhmann es la diferenciación progresiva de las sociedades a lo…

874 thoughts on “Clases sociales

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