Corrientes filosoficas

Constructivismo

El constructivismo es el modelo que mantiene que una persona, tanto en los aspectos cognitivos, sociales y afectivos del comportamiento, es una construcción propia que se va produciendo día a día como resultado de la interacción del ambiente y factores internos.
Según la posición constructivista, el conocimiento no es una copia de la realidad, sino una construcción del serhumano, esta construcción se realiza con los esquemas que la persona ya posee (conocimientos previos), o sea con lo que ya construyó en su relación con el medio que lo rodea.
Esta construcción que se realiza todos los días y en casi todos los contextos de la vida, depende sobre todo de dos aspectos De la representación inicial que se tiene de la nueva información y,
De la actividad externa ointerna que se desarrolla al respecto.
El Modelo Constructivista está centrado en la persona, en sus experiencias previas de las que realiza nuevas construcciones mentales, considera que la construcción se produce:
Cuando el sujeto interactúa con el objeto del conocimiento(Piaget)
Cuando esto lo realiza en interacción con otros (Vigotsky Cuando es significativo para el sujeto (Ausubel)CONCEPCIÓN FILOSOFICA DEL CONSTRUCTIVISMO
El constructivismo plantea que nuestro mundo es un mundo humano, producto de la interacción humana con los estímulos naturales y sociales que hemos alcanzado a procesar desde nuestras «operaciones mentales (Piaget).
Esta posición filosófica constructivista implica que el conocimiento humano no se recibe en forma pasiva ni del mundo ni de nadie, sino quees procesado y construido activamente, además la función cognoscitiva está al servicio de la vida, es una función adaptativa, y por lo tanto el conocimiento permite que la persona organice su mundo experiencial y vivencial,
La enseñanza constructivista considera que el aprendizaje humano es siempre una construcción interior.
Una aportación interesante, pero que despierta una inquietante, en elámbito filosófico. Es decir cuando en el Constructivismo se utiliza la palabra Conocimiento Previo, la pregunta que surge es ¿Cuál es la fuente o el origen de donde proviene este conocimiento Previo? De la Razón o de la Experiencia, (Enfoque Racionalista y Enfoque Empirista), o como también se dice en el Constructivismo; el sujeto lo construye internamente, esto nos conduce a relacionarlo con elEnfoque Filosófico Idealista.

Humanismo

Surge el humanismo, el cual es un movimiento desarrollado en Europa desde el siglo XVI que rompió con las tradiciones escolásticas medievales y exaltó las cualidades humanas, por lo que comenzó a dar sentido racional a la vida. Es decir, se pone énfasis en la responsabilidad del propio hombre para darle sentido a su vida, sin recurrir a la existencia deun mundo trascendental o un dios. Como consecuencia se considera al hombre como centro y medida de todas las cosas.
Desde un punto de vista filosófico el humanismo es una actitud que hace hincapié en la dignidad y el valor de la persona. Uno de sus principios básicos es que las personas son seres racionales que poseen en si mismas capacidad para hallar la verdad y practicar el bien.
El hombrehumanista
Los humanistas fueron aquellos que adoptando el ideal del Renacimiento, se apasionaron por las artes y las letras clásicas. Fueron profesionales de las letras, generalmente salidos de la burguesía, eclesiásticos, profesores de universidades, médicos, funcionarios, a veces publicistas al servicio de una empresa editorial, que expresan la tendencia de la sociedad y le proporcionan suutillaje intelectual. Pensionados y protegidos por los príncipes actuaron a menudo como propagandistas de esto.
Los humanistas fueron los apóstoles de la antigüedad y pretendieron revivirla.
Algunos humanistas destacados
Petrarca: Los historiadores consideran a Petrarca «el primero de los humanistas»
Poggio Bracciolini: Habiendo participado en el concilio de Constanza, aprovechó la ocasión…

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