Degradacion

Procesos de Degradación

1. Erosión acelerada antrópica: El arrastre de materiales del suelo por diversos agentes como el agua y el viento, lo cual genera la improductividad del suelo
2.Salinización y solidificación de los suelos: Es la acumulación excesiva de sales solubles (sulfato de sodio y Calcio) en la parte donde se desarrollan las raíces de los cultivos
3. Compactación:Es un problema de degradación de los suelos que se manifiesta con el aumento de la densidad de éstos, en las capas superficiales o profundas. Es el resultante del deterioro gradual de la materiaorgánica y la actividad biológica.
4. Contaminación química: El uso irracional de grandes cantidades de fertilizantes y sustancias químicas para el control de plagas y enfermedades, por encimade los niveles requeridos producen la contaminación química de los suelos.
5. Pérdida de nutrientes: Se refleja en un empobrecimiento gradual o acelerado del suelo por sobreexplotación omonocultivo, lo que trae como consecuencia la baja fertilidad y productividad de los suelos.
6. Conflicto de usos: La tierras agrícolas se pierden o transforman en tierras para la urbanización.Por otro lado, es importante destacar que la desertificación es una degradación de tierras que ocurre en áreas áridas, semiáridas y subhúmedas del mundo. Estas áreas de secano susceptibles cubrenel 40 % de la superficie terrestre, poniendo en riesgo a más de 1.000 millones de habitantes que dependen de esas tierras para sobrevivir.
La degradación de las tierras causa pérdidas de laproductividad agraria en muchas partes del mundo.
Las causas de la degradación son principalmente antropogénicas y vinculadas a la agricultura. Incluyen:
Deforestación
Consumo de los nutrientesdel suelo por agricultura
Urbanización
Irrigación riego
Contaminación

Véase también
Contaminación del suelo
Erosión hídrica
Salinización
Desertificación
Manejo del recurso tierra

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