Desnutricion

La Desnutrición es un estado de deficiencia en el consumo o disponibilidad de energía y/o nutrimentos que repercute negativamente en la salud de quien la padece. Es un síndrome que acompaña la pobreza y la marginación de la población.

De acuerdo con cifras de la Organización de Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO), en 2004 se estimaba que en el mundo hay cerca de 840millones de personas aquejadas por la Desnutrición que no pueden disfrutar de una vida saludable y activa. De éstas, 389 millones son infantes, de los cuales 109 millones sufren insuficiencia alimentaria, 230 millones tienen retraso de crecimiento y 50 millones padecen desnutrición extrema.
Estudios recientes del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán” (INCMNSZ) hanestimado la magnitud y las tendencias actuales de desnutrición infantil en México para cada entidad federativa, medio urbano y rural y grado de marginación municipal:
* A escala nacional se observa una disminución de la Desnutrición Infantil de poco más del 50% en la década reciente.
* Los ámbitos de mayor prevalencia de desnutrición y pobreza muestran un descenso más lento: la disminución en laszonas indígenas fue únicamente de 30%, en los municipios de alta marginación del 34%, y del 38% en los cuatro Estados de más alta prevalencia.
* Con esta tasa de descenso tardaría alrededor de medio siglo abatirse la desnutrición en los ámbitos de pobreza extrema.
* El 51% de los niños desnutridos habita en los municipios de alta y muy alta marginación.
* La prevalencia dedesnutrición en el medio indígena marginal es 5 veces mayor a la prevalencia nacional.
* 73% de los niños desnutridos del país se concentran en los 7 Estados de mayor prevalencia, que son los mismos en donde opera el Programa Integral de Nutrición de Un Kilo de Ayuda.
http://www.unkilodeayuda.org.mx/La_desnutricion.asp
La desnutrición es un estado patológico, inespecífico, sistémico y potencialmentereversible, que se genera por el aporte insuficiente de nutrimentos o por una alteración en su utilización por las células del organismo.
La desnutrición proteínico-energética (DPE) es una enfermedad multisistémica, que afecta todos los órganos y sistemas del ser humano, producida por una disminución drástica, aguda o crónica, en la disponibilidad de nutrimentos, ya sea por ingestióninsuficiente, inadecuada absorción, exceso de pérdidas o la conjunción de dos o más de estos factores. Se manifiesta por grados de déficit antropométrico, signos y síntomas clínicos y alteraciones bioquímicas, hematológicas e inmunológicas.

La desnutrición energético proteico (DEP) es una enfermedad de grandes proporciones en el mundo aunque se concentra de mandera principal en los países en desarrolloy rpovoca cada añola muerte de mas de la mitad de los casi 12 millones de niños menores de cinco años que la padecen.
Los niños con DPE se enferman con mas frecuencia, suelen sufrir la perdida de sus capacidades intelectuales y, si sobreviven, pueden llegar a la edad adulta con discapacidades mentales o físicas permanentes.
En 1998, el fondo de las naciones unidas para la infancia estimo que entodo el obre había 226 millones de niños con DPE aguda (peso inferior a la estatura esperada) y 183 millones con un peso menor para su edad. Lo anterios quería decir que al menos cuatro de casa 10 menosres de cinco años en todo el planeta presentaban alguna alteración relacionada con la desnutrición.
En mexico la prevalencia de la DPE es alta, como lo demostró la encuensta nacional de nutrición de1988, en donde 41.9 %, en el caso de la estatura para la edad, y 17.5 % en relación con el indicados peso para la estatuta.
Cuando todo país desarrollado, en mexico la prevalecía de DEP es mas elevada en las zonas rurales indígenas y urbanas marginadas. En 1996 la encuesta nacional de alimentación y nutrición en el medio rural mostro que 42.7% de la población rural menor de cinco años padecía…

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