Diabetes

RESUMEN
El objetivo del Proyecto para el Control y Prevención de la Diabetes
en la Frontera México-Estados Unidos es reducir el impacto de la
diabetes entre los habitantes de la región de la frontera México-
Estados Unidos a través de un modelo de liderazgo compartido y participación
interinstitucional e interagencial a lo largo de la frontera.
La primera fase del proyecto consistió endesarrollar un estudio
descriptivo transversal de prevalencia de diabetes, factores de riesgo biológicos
y de conducta. El estudio se realizó entre febrero de 2001 y octubre de
2002 a una muestra aleatoria de 4,027 personas de 18 años de edad o mayores,
no institucionalizadas, residentes de la zona de la frontera México-EUA.
La diabetes es definida como auto-reportada o valores de glucosa
plasmática enayunas mayores o iguales a 126 mg/dl, mientras que la prediabetes
se caracteriza por tener niveles de glucosa plasmática entre 100-125
mg/dl. Bajo peso se definió como índice de masa corporal (IMC) menor a
18.5 kg/m2; peso normal, valores de IMC entre 18.5 y 24.9 Kg/M2; sobrepeso,
IMC entre 25.0 y 29.9; y obesidad, IMC igual o mayor a 30.0 Kg/M2.
Los resultados muestran que de los 7.5 millones deadultos mayores
de 18 años que residen en la frontera México-Estados Unidos, 15.7%, o
aproximadamente 1.2 millones, tienen diabetes. De éstos, alrededor de
500,000 viven en el lado mexicano de la frontera y más de 700,000 en la
frontera sur de Estados Unidos. Aproximadamente un millón, 14% de los
habitantes adultos, padecen de prediabetes, más de la mitad de ellos (51%)
son mujeres. Se estima queexisten 5.3 millones de personas adultas con
sobrepeso u obesidad en la frontera. Un millón de personas obesas radican
en la frontera de México y 1.5 millones en la frontera de Estados Unidos.
Las personas obesas de la frontera de los Estados Unidos tienen 2.8 veces
riesgo de desarrollar diabetes que las personas con peso normal; en la frontera
mexicana este riesgo es 2.2 veces mayor.

RESUMEN
Serealiza un estudio descriptivo en los años 1997-1998 con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimiento de los pacientes relacionados con el autocuidado de los pies, así como las características relacionadas con el nivel mínimo de educación diabetológica, en un área de salud del policlínico «Antonio Maceo» del municipio Cerro. Se aplicaron encuestas a un universo de 68 pacientes diabéticos, éstaconsta de 20 preguntas donde se recogen los datos generales de la enfermedad. Se analizan las variables de interés como: la media de edad es de 57 años, el 53 % de la población está constituido por el grupo de pacientes con menos de 10 años de la enfermedad, el 37,9 % representa al grupo insulinodependiente, el 27,9 % de la población estudiada fuma, el 92,9 % de los que acuden al especialistaconocen factores de riesgo, el 62,2 % se inspecciona los píes, el 59 % no asiste al podólogo, el 52,6 % de los pacientes que presentan claudificación son fumadores. El resultado de la encuesta nos mostró que el 64,7 no tenían conocimientos acerca de su enfermedad, un 22 % presentó conocimientos mínimos y sólo un 13,2 % demostró tener conocimiento de su enfermedad.
Descriptores DeCS: PIE; AUTOCUIDADO;PIE DIABÉTICO/ patología.
La diabetes mellitus constituye una de las enfermedades no transmisibles de evolución crónica con mayor repercusión directa en la morbilidad y mortalidad general en Cuba. El control médico del paciente en la atención ambulatoria es determinante para la modificación de este hecho. Suárez R, García R. La educación al paciente diabético en la atención primaria de salud.Diagnóstico de la Situación. Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. XII Forum de Ciencia y Técnica 1998. En nuestro país la diabetes mellitus ha tenido un comportamiento ascendente en los últimos años, por lo que se ha desarrollado una estrategia, con la participación de todas las especialidades para prevenir, en la modificación de ese comportamiento.1 En este sentido, la atención ambulatoria del…

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