El agua

En ciudades
Los principales problemas de abastecimiento a los centro urbanos son el agotamiento de las fuentes locales, la contaminación de las mismas, los altos costos de captación y conducción delagua y los conflictos generados por los intereses de diferentes usuarios sobre las fuentes. Paradójicamente, ante esta difícil situación, en las ciudades ocurren grandes porcentajes de fugas, seutilizan tecnologías derrochadoras de agua, no se reúsa este recurso, los sistemas de facturación y cobranza son deficientes, las tarifas por el servicio frecuentemente no cubren los costos del suministroy existe poca conciencia ciudadana.
En una ciudad, en promedio se consume el 71% de la producción total de agua en las casas habitación, el 12% en la industria, el 15% en el comercio y el 2% en elsector servicios. Las técnicas de uso eficiente en las ciudades se pueden clasificar en cinco grupos: comunicación y educación, detección y reparación de fugas, medición, sistemas tarifaros yreglamentación.
Comunicacion y educación
Para que todo programa de uso eficiente del agua tenga éxito, debe contar con la participación ciudadana, y para ello es indispensable establecer acciones decomunicación y educación. Otras actividades de estos programas, como las arriba mencionadas, serán más fáciles de realizar si se incluye a la población (Grisham y Flemming, 1989).
Los medios para hacer delconocimiento de los usuarios los objetivos, metas y resultados del programa son variados, incluyen desde avisos en los recibos de pago, campañas publicitarias en prensa, radio y televisión, anuncios enla vía pública y sistema de transporte hasta la distribución de dispositivos ahorradores. Se estima que este tipo de programas puede llegar a producir ahorros de entre un 4 y 5% de la produccióntotal de agua (Grisham y Flemming, 1989).
En relación con la educación formal, es necesario fortalecer los programas de educación primaria y secundaria, en aspectos básicos como el ciclo hidrológico,…

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