El problema ecologico en mexico

El Problema Ecológico en México
Si bien los términos poblacion y medio ambiente aluden a dos ambitos distintos, ellos ocultan la complejidad de sus vinculos, de los procesos que les son comunes y, ademas, en su articulacion se constituyen en observables solamente aquellos que aparecen como «problema», entre los que destacan, por ejemplo, la contaminacion en sentido amplio y el «excesivo»crecimiento de la poblacion. En cambio, factores como los patrones de produccion y consumo, las pautas de acceso y uso de los recursos naturales, la distribucion territorial de la poblacion y los recursos, las tecnologias disponibles, la disponibilidad y acceso al agua, (los cuales condicionan las relaciones entre ambiente y poblacion) permanecen en un segundo plano mucho mas difuso.
Es a través de lasmodalidades de desarrollo que la poblacion ejerce una accion que puede deteriorar el medio. Ello esta determinado fundamentalmente por las caracteristicas de los sistemas productivos, las formas de ocupacion del espacio, y no solo por el numero de individuos existentes. Sin embargo, es preciso considerar esta afirmacion en términos dinamicos y de largo plazo.
Si bien el impacto ambiental tiendea ser global, el deterioro de la calidad de los recursos naturales tiene una manifestacion territorial localizada. El impacto regional, en comparacion con el nivel global, puede ser marginal, pero es su efecto acumulativo lo que le otorga verdadera importancia.
El territorio es concebido como un sistema estructurado como totalidad. Se conforma por subsistemas, entre los cuales se puedendistinguir el del medio ambiente fisico (clima, aire, agua, suelo y subsuelo, principalmente), el biotico (vegetacion y fauna), el de poblacion y de las actividades de produccion y consumo. El territorio para una poblacion determinada es el gran laboratorium, el arsenal que proporciona tanto el medio de trabajo como el material de trabajo. Es también la sede, la base de la entidad comunitaria. Cuando larelacion del hombre con la tierra es directa, cada individuo se comporta como propietario o poseedor solo en tanto miembro de una comunidad.
El analisis de la distribucion de la poblacion, su dispersion, integracion y concentracion, entre otros aspectos, tiene que ver con la dimension espacial, territorial. El territorio es el espacio concreto de relaciones de diferente tipo entre elementosfisicos naturales, construidos y sociales, el cual ademas de ser asiento, substrato, base de procesos, es producto de las relaciones entre sus elementos geograficos y humanos, lo cual implica situar la integracion, concentracion y dispersion en funcion de estas relaciones, las que daran cuenta de su apropiacion en cuanto territorio, que en perspectiva historica corresponde al proceso de poblamiento.Qué estaria condicionando las relaciones entre la poblacion y su medio ambiente? Se plantea que los problemas ambientales no son consecuencia inevitable del desarrollo, sino de aquellas modalidades particulares del mismo intrinsecamente no sustentables en términos economicos, sociales y ecologicos. Asi, el desarrollo sustentable es una estrategia que reconoce que la calidad de la vida humana esinseparable de la calidad del medio ambiente y que los problemas ambientales se relacionan en diversas formas y grados con los fenomenos demograficos.

La compatibilidad entre preservacion de recursos ambientales y mayores niveles de bienestar no es estricta; a veces ambos elementos tienen que competir porque los recursos tienen destinos alternativos, y debe tomarse una decision. El aspecto centralde la compatibilidad es la necesidad de tomar una decision sobre el balance en el largo plazo, entre objetivos que a veces en el corto plazo pueden ser contradictorios.

La poblacion no es solamente un numero ni se puede circunscribir unicamente a los indicadores demograficos (tamaño, densidad, tasa de crecimiento, distribucion por edad y sexo, entre otros), sino también debe incluir a los…

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