El tiempo de trabajo

1. El tiempo de trabajo
1.1 La jornada de trabajo
El Art. 34 hace una doble distinción pues diferencia entre jornada semanal y jornada diaria.
?Jornada Semanal: No podrá ser superior a 40 horas de trabajo efectivo pero podrá trabajar hasta 42 horas semanales respetando el descanso mínimo diario de 12 horas y el semanal de día y medio.
?Jornada Diaria: Máximo 9 horas de trabajo al día ymenores de 18 años no podrán superar las 8 horas. El descanso mínimo diario entre jornada es de 12 horas
1.2 El Descanso
Hay 3 tipos:
?Descanso diario: Tiene lugar entre el final de una jornada y la siguiente. Mínimo 12 horas
?Descanso semanal: Será como mínimo de 1día y medio (36h.) y para los menores 2 días (48h.)
?Descanso durante la jornada: Para mayores de edad que trabajen 6 horas continuadastendrán 15minutos como mínimo y los menores de edad que trabajen 4horas y media continuadas tendrán mínimo 30minutos.
1.3 Las Horas Extraordinarias
Son horas de trabajo efectivo que se realizan sobrepasando la duración máxima de la jornada ordinaria.
El nº máximo al año es de 80h. excepto las destinadas a prevenir o reparar siniestros urgentes que son horas por fuerza mayor y no hay máximo.Las horas extraordinarias son voluntarias, menos las de fuerza mayor que son obligatorias.

Prohibido Horas Extra:
1-Menores de 18 nunca pueden.
2-Trabajadores Nocturnos, solo las de fuerza mayor.
3-Discapacitados empleados en centros especiales de trabajo, solo fuerza mayor.

Como Pagar Las Horas Extra:
1-Con Dinero: No se puede pagar menos de lo que vale una hora normal, tiene que serigual o superior.
2-Con Descanso: Estos días deben disfrutarse en los 4 meses siguientes de hacer las horas sino se perderán y en su lugar permanecerá la opción de pago en dinero.

1.4 La Jornada Nocturna – Art.36
Trabajador nocturno es aquel que trabaje al menos 3 horas de su jornada entre las 10 de la noche y las 6 de la mañana.
No pueden hacer horas extra salvo por fuerza mayor y su salariovendrá en convenio colectivo.
1.5 Los Permisos Retribuidos – Art.37
El trabajador tiene derecho a faltar a su puesto de trabajo siempre que preavise al empresario y lo justifique. Ese tiempo se le paga y solo podrá disfrutas de los siguientes permisos:
1-Por matrimonio – 15 días
2-Por nacimiento de hijo, enfermedad, hospitalización o fallecimiento de un familiar de hasta el 2º grado deconsanguinidad o afinidad – 2 días si no existe desplazamiento o 4 días si lo hay.
3-Por traslado de domicilio habitual – 1día
4-Por deber de juicio, jurado popular… – tiempo indispensable
5-Por lactancia de un hijo tanto padre como madre – 1hora al día que puede ser continuada o dividida entre los dos de 30 minutos.
6-Por preparación para el parto o reconocimiento preparto – tiempo indispensable7-Por nacimiento de hijo prematuro tanto madre como padre – 1hora al día
1.6 Las Vacaciones – Art.38
Todos los trabajadores tienen derecho a un periodo de vacaciones retribuidas. La duración será de 30 días naturales. Por cada mes trabajado se generan 2.5 días de vacaciones. Estas se fijaran de común acuerdo ente empresario y trabajador, si no llegan a un acuerdo será un juez el encargado dedecidir la fecha de las vacaciones. Una vez comenzado el periodo vacacional no puede interrumpirse. Las vacaciones no son acumulables y deben disfrutarse en el periodo de año natural, son retribuidas y no compensables económicamente salvo cuando el trabajador termina en la empresa sin haber disfrutado de las vacaciones y recibirá en su finiquito la compensación económica por esas vacaciones nodisfrutadas.
2.1 Concepto
Es la retribución que el empresario da el trabajador como compensación por los servicios que recibe de este. El cobro del salario es el principal derecho del trabajador y la principal obligación del empresario. El salario se paga a través de la nómina que tiene que ajustarse al modelo oficial.
2.2 Pago del Salario
1- Retribución Dineraria: A través de…

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