Emilio durkheim

Hechos sociales
Teóricos anteriores veían a la sociología no como un ámbito autónomo de investigación, sino a través de acercamientos psicológicos u orgánicos. Por el contrario Durkheim concibió la existencia de fenómenos específicamente sociales («hechos sociales»), que constituyen unidades de estudio que no pueden ser abordadas con técnicas que no sean las específicamente sociales. Asimismoredefinió a la sociología como la ciencia que tiene como objeto el estudio de estos hechos sociales.

Durkheim definió los hechos sociales en Las reglas del método sociológico como: «…modos de actuar, pensar y sentir externos al individuo, y que poseen un poder de coerción en virtud del cual se imponen a él…» (E. Durkheim. les regles de la methode sociologique ‘Paris: Presses Universitariresde France, 1956, p. 5).

Dichos hechos existen con anterioridad al nacimiento de un individuo en determinada sociedad; por lo tanto, son exteriores a él. Son colectivos porque son parte de la cultura de la sociedad, y son coercitivos porque los individuos se educan conforme a las normas y reglas de ella sólo por el hecho de nacer en aquélla. Durkheim afirmó: «si existían antes es que existenfuera de nosotros» y menciona la lengua natal, la escritura y el sistema monetario como ejemplos.

Durkheim también dijo que la sociedad era algo que estaba fuera y dentro del hombre al mismo tiempo gracias a que este adoptaba e interiorizaba los valores y la moral de la sociedad, de esto también deriva que unos se vean obligados a ciertos parámetros y límites de los que ellos no están de acuerdo yse rebelan ante ella.

[editar] La división del trabajo social
En su tesis doctoral publicada en 1893, Durkheim considera el problema de la solidaridad social. Su estudio se basó en la distinción de dos formas de solidaridad. Pero primero deberíamos saber que la solidaridad es, para el autor, un hecho moral; por lo tanto, sin la posibilidad de aparecer positivamente, como un hecho externo, debebuscarse algún fenómeno que tenga esa existencia exterior, que sea tangible y positivo: que represente o indique a ese elemento moral. Él encuentra esas condiciones en las formas de la pena y éstas aparecen en las formas del derecho.

La pena represiva, expresada en el derecho penal, aparece en aquellas sociedades con fuertes estados de conciencia colectiva, para las cuales el crimen es unaofensa a toda la sociedad. Por eso, se hace necesaria una dura pena. Esta característica se da en las sociedades primitivas.

En cambio, en las sociedades modernas, se encuentra instalada la pena restitutiva, aquella que pretende devolver las cosas al estado anterior a aquel en que fue cometido el crimen. La ofensa no se comete contra toda la sociedad, sino que es un problema entre las partes. Enlas sociedades modernas existen las formas de derecho civil, de la familia, del comercio. Los hombres, al nacer distintos entre sí, son diferentes y por eso existe gran división del trabajo social.

En las sociedades primitivas, la solidaridad surge de la conciencia colectiva y la denomina solidaridad mecánica: la identificación con un grupo social se produce por las condiciones de igualdad, estáen boga la idea de comunidad en tanto los individuos tienen «cosas en común», que producen un fuerte compromiso. En cuanto a la división del trabajo, no hay especialización, pero sí ascenso (Durkheim da dos ejemplos de sociedades primitivas en un contexto moderno: la Iglesia y el Ejército, fuertemente verticalistas ambas). En las sociedades modernas, esa conciencia colectiva es más débil y lasolidaridad que existe en ellas es orgánica, puesto que surge de las diferencias producidas por la división social del trabajo, que es en general la respuesta que el siglo XIX da a la pregunta sobre el origen de todo hecho social. La solidaridad es, más particularmente, por necesidad en este tipo de sociedades, en las que las pasiones son reemplazadas por los intereses.

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