En word

“Sorprendentes cambios climáticos en la Tierra y sus efectos”


Autor: Tapia Becerra Yentzy Renatta

Alumna del 2º Semestre de la academia de primer grado grupo “A” de la Lic. En Educación Preescolar

Junio del 2009.



1. Tipos de Clima

2. La vida cambia al cambiar el clima

3. Causas de los cambios climáticos

4. La teoria de Agasi1. Sustentos

5. Las estaciones del año




1. Tipos de Clima

Aunque la variedad de climas locales en la Tierra es enorme, como siempre, los científicos se han encargado de clasificarlos. De esta forma podemos hacernos una idea aproximada de qué tiempo hace en los diversos lugares del planeta y, en consecuencia, entender mejor cómoviven sus habitantes, animales y plantas, ya que el clima determina su forma de vida.

Hay para todos los gustos, desde climas extremadamente secos a otros demasiado húmedos o, incluso, otros que reparten el año entre los dos extremos. Hay climas muy calidos, otros muy frios, otros suaves y algunos, en zonas altas, con variaciones drásticas al cabo del día.

Climas tropicales lluviosos

Sonclimas con temperaturas del mes más frío por encima de 18º C. Se localizan en áreas que se extienden desde el Ecuador hasta los Trópicos a alturas inferiores a unos 800 a 1000 m, con lluvias superiores a 750 mm anuales, también son llamados climas megatermicos o cálidos con bosques. Dentro de este grupo de climas pueden reconocerse tres tipos:

Ecuatorial: Caliente y húmedo, con precipitacionesabundantes todo el año (selva tropical). Se da en las zonas de las calmas ecuatoriales, entre 10º S y 10º N. La temperatura todos los meses está entre 20 y 27º C. La amplitud térmica anual es inferior a los 5º C. La humedad relativa es muy alta. La precipitación supera los 2000 mm anuales, con un máximo en los equinoccios y un mínimo en los solsticios.

Tropical: Caliente subhúmedo con lluvias enverano (sabana). Se da entre la zona ecuatorial y en los desiertos cálidos (entre 10 y 25º de latitud Norte y Sur). Estación invernal seca que aumenta a medida que nos alejamos del Ecuador. Precipitación mínima superior a 100 mm.

Monzónico: Caliente, húmedo, con lluvias abundantes en verano, con in-fluencia del monzón. Se da en el sudeste asiático. Es el clima más húmedo del planeta, aunquetiene una corta estación seca invernal. Contraste esta-cional muy fuerte. Verano cálido y húmedo e invierno seco. La precipita-ción mínima supera los 400 mm en pocos meses.

Climas secos

Son climas en los que la evaporación excede a la precipitación, por lo que ésta no es suficiente para alimentar corrientes de agua permanentes. Hay dos subdivisiones principales:

Semiárido: En las estepascálida o en los límites de los grandes desiertos cálidos. Sus precipitaciones son escasas e irregulares, entre 250 y 500 mm anuales, en forma de chaparrones. Las temperaturas son elevadas durante todo el año. Gran amplitud térmica diaria. Otro tipo de clima semiárido se da en las estepas frías, en latitudes medias del interior de los continentes más grandes. Sus precipitaciones son muy escasas eirregulares, en forma de chaparrones. Las temperaturas similares a las continentales. Inviernos fríos y fuerte amplitud térmica anual.

Árido: Es el clima del desierto, ya sea cálido o frio. La aridez es extrema y las precipitaciones escasas e irregulares, inferiores a los 250 mm anuales, con una sequedad extrema del aire. Humedad relativa muy baja. Excepto en Europa, se presentan en todos loscontinentes. Los desiertos fríos son degradaciones del clima continental, mediterráneo o de vertientes a sotavento.

Climas templados lluviosos

Son climas donde la temperatura media del mes más frío esta comprendida entre 18º C y -3º C y la temperatura media del mes más cálido es superior a 10º C. La temperatura del mes más frío de -3º C coincide con el límite de las zonas cubiertas de nieve por…

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