Ensayo sobre la reseña histórica de la psicología industrial

Al investigar un poco sobre la evolución histórica de la Psicología Industrial, me doy cuenta que esta ciencia, tuvo una incidencia directa en conflictos de carácter global como las dos guerras mundiales; pienso que en la primera no tuvo tanta influencia como en la segunda. Pienso que la confluencia de la psicología con intereses aplicados y la preocupación por incrementar la eficienciaindustrial fue el ingrediente para el surgimiento de la Psicología Industrial u Organizacional.
A mi parecer tres individuos fueron los precursores de la Psicología Industrial, ellos fueron Walter Dill Scott, Frederick W. Taylor y Hugo Münsterberg, los cuales realizaron diferentes aportes, basados en sus conocimientos y sus experiencias.
Walter Dill Scott, imbuyó en el medio la aplicación de laPsicología en el campo de la Publicidad, que según mi concepto se podría tomar como una antesala a lo que después con mayor regularidad aplicaría en la Industria. Dos libros fueron importantes en sus aportes, estos fueron The Theory of Advertising (1903) y The Psychology of Advertising (1908). Cabe resaltar que Scott además de estos aportes fue decisivo en la aplicación de procedimientos de personal dentrodel ejército en la primera guerra mundial.
Frederick W. Taylor se dio cuenta del valor que tenía rediseñar la situación laboral para alcanzar tanto una mayor producción de la compañía como salarios más altos para los trabajadores. En mi opinión este ingeniero de profesión era de naturaleza pragmática, porque además de adquirir conocimientos de manera empírica, obtuvo la experiencia de manerapráctica empezando como obrero, pasando a supervisor y luego a jefe de planta de una compañía. Algunos principios que estableció fueron: 1) la ciencia por encima de la regla del pulgar; 2) selección científica y capacitación; 3) la cooperación por encima del individualismo, y 4) división equitativa del trabajo más adecuado entre jefes y empleados. Para mi fue interesante el que haya establecido unestudio en el cual demostró, que la productividad de los obreros que manipulaban lingotes de hierro aumentaba si a estos se les capacitaba sobre cuándo trabajar y cuándo descansar.
Al psicólogo alemán Hugo Münsterberg muchos autores lo consideran el padre de la Psicolgía Indutrial, este psicólogo implementó en su libro Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913) directrices como seleccionartrabajadores, diseñar situaciones laborales y utilizar la psicología en las ventas. A mi parecer y según lo investigado uno de sus más importantes estudios fue el del conductor seguro de tranvía, que luego de un exhaustivo análisis detallado y hasta una simulación de laboratorio del tranvía, concluyó que un buen conductor debía analizar y apreciar todo lo que puede influir sobre el avance del vehículo
LaPrimera Guerra Mundial fue el motor que impulsó a la Psicología Industrial (primero dentro de los Estados Unidos) como una doctrina que pudiera traer grandes beneficios a las organizaciones. Pienso que el hecho de que el ejército haya accedido a que la Psicología implementara métodos de selección y test generales a gran parte de sus reclutas, oficiales y candidatos a oficiales contribuyó a una granreputación posguerra, porque ingenieros e industriales se dieron cuenta de que la psicología podía realizar grandes aportes a las organizaciones. La Psicología teniendo a Robert Yerkes (presidente en ese entonces de la APA: American Psychological Association) como principal promotor para aplicar la Psicología en pro de los intereses armados del ejército, implementó en el ejército los test deinteligencia Alfa (Army Alpha) para reclutas alfabetizados y Beta (Army Beta) para reclutas analfabetas, así como también algunos test individuales. Reitero que esta fue una buena época para la Psicología Industrial, una época de auge que continuó después de noviembre de 1918 (fecha del armisticio), ya que en la posguerra se consolidaron empresas consultoras y oficinas de investigación psicológica,…

84 thoughts on “Ensayo sobre la reseña histórica de la psicología industrial

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