Escuela marxista

Llamamos marxismo al conjunto de ideas políticas, económicas y filosóficas que nacen con la obra de Karl Marx, pero que van unidas al activismo obrero y que posteriormente han sido desarrolladas pormuchos autores. El marxismo es la doctrina o cuerpo ideológico que corona con genial coherencia las tres fuentes ideológicas más avanzadas de la Europa del s.XIX: el socialismo francés (Saint-Simon,Fourier, Proudhon), la filosofía clásica alemana (Feuerbach, Hegel) y la economía política inglesa (David Ricardo, Adam Smith).
Engels llamó al marxismo o comunismo «socialismo científico», paradistinguirlo de los socialismos «moderados» pequeño-burgueses, del socialismo utópico francés, o del socialismo anarquista. Hoy en día forma parte de la ideología de los principales movimientos obreros yde emancipación en todo el mundo.
La idea de este texto es empezar la casa por los cimientos. No se puede hacer una lista de las conclusiones que Marx extrajo de toda una vida dedicada al estudioy la observación. Se pretende hacer un seguimiento de cómo llega a algunas de esas conclusiones, introduciendo primero los conceptos de materialismo, dialéctica, lucha de clases, plusvalía,… parapoder entender mejor y más coherentemente la teoría marxista del movimiento comunista. Se ha procurado razonar organizadamente las explicaciones buscando la máxima claridad. Sin embargo es imposibletratar conceptos tan abstractos como la dialéctica o el valor y evitar que el texto tenga cierta complejidad. La lectura de un texto filosófico, económico y político, requiere una especial atención. Debeleerse bolígrafo en mano, tomar notas, contrastar, releer tanto como sea necesario, preguntar, etc. hasta extraer la idea que encierra cada frase. Dada la necesidad de recortar, resumir, omitir ysimplificar: es recomendable al joven lector que desea iniciarse en el Marxismo que no consienta en quedarse en el umbral, y que tras esta vista de pájaro llegue por medio de otras lecturas y demás…

49 thoughts on “Escuela marxista

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