Estado duran5te la edad media





La edad media el edo. Imperial.

El edo. carolingo

El Estado durante la Edad Media
Fragmentación del Estado imperial
El periodo que llamamos Edad Media abarca un lapso de aproximadamente mil años. Se trata de siglos durante loscuales ocurrieron muchas transformaciones y que no forman un periodo unitario, de ahí que suela dividirse en tres etapas: temprana Edad Media (de 476 a 800 aprox.); alta Edad Media (siglos IX a XI aprox.) y baja Edad Media (siglos XII a XV aprox.).
Las afirmaciones correspondientes a la Edad Media siempre deben ser matizadas; al referirse a un fenómeno ha de procurarse particularizar en qué momentoocurrió y más o menos en qué sitio de la Europa Occidental, que es el escenario del proceso que analizamos.
Un aspecto de la Edad Media que resulta fundamental para su comprensión cabal es la activa interacción cultural de la época, la muy intensa interrelación de diversos pueblos que se influyen recíprocamente, que se interpenetran mediante relaciones culturales o bélicas a lo largo de muchasdécadas. Se trata de una verdadera efervescencia humana que se escenifica en Europa y el Mediterráneo.
Confluyen múltiples grupos: los vikingos —que continuamente acudían al continente en incursiones de saqueo—, los eslavos, algunas tribus mongólicas; la influencia del Imperio romano de Oriente o bizantino y la gran expansión árabe; más tarde, las invasiones de los sarracenos. Estos desplazamientosprovocaron la puesta en contacto de variadas influencias, diversos factores, disímbolas costumbres, idiosincrasias y etnias. De ahí el carácter especialmente complejo de toda la época.

El Imperio romano cuyo esplendor, que parecía eterno, había empezado a palidecer para dar paso a la etapa histórica conocida como Edad Medial Sabemos que tiempo atrás el Imperio se había dividido en dos grandessecciones, la de Occidente y la de Oriente. Esta última, con capital en Constantinopla, fundada por Constantino en 236, habría de mantener su unidad política por varios siglos más.

La interacción cultural y la disolución del Imperio
A lo largo del siglo V se produce una considerable penetración de las tribus provenientes del norte, oriundas de la región germana, las cuales incursionaban frecuentementeen el territorio imperial y saqueaban sus poblaciones.
En poderosas oleadas migratorias, estos pueblos penetraron en el Imperio hasta que en el año 476 Odoacro, uno de sus reyes, se instaló en Roma. A la fecha citada se le suele considerar como el momento que decide la caída del Imperio romano de Occidente, aunque ello es un tanto relativo y arbitrario. Sabemos que los historiadores acostumbranfijar una fecha para ubicar de modo convencional, en un punto, una transición que no se produce abruptamente sino a la manera de un proceso.
El Imperio, en efecto, comenzó a agonizar mucho antes de 476. Ya a principios de ese siglo las legiones romanas se retiraron de algunas áreas, como la Gran Bretaña. La penetración de los bárbaros era frecuente y se habían producido saqueos en Roma; su arribo ala llamada Ciudad Eterna mostraba ya las debilidades del Imperio y su incapacidad para proteger las fronteras. Los propios romanos fueron permitiendo, mediante el pago de una determinada cantidad anual, que algunas de estas tribus se asentaran en sus dominios. Esta cantidad equivalía al pago de una especie de arrendamiento de algunas regiones del territorio imperial.
Se dio así una ampliainteracción cultural —que habría de transformar las estructuras políticas— entre los pueblos germánicos y los romanos. Los mismos integrantes de aquéllos eran reclutados para el ejército romano, al punto que algunos bárbaros —denominación que los romanos daban a estas tribus— habían sido designados para ejercer mandos militares en las fuerzas armadas de la urbe. Los bárbaros se integraban en el Imperio…

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