basic cantonese language

[16] Additionally, Cantonese media and popular culture from Hong Kong is popular throughout the region. Basic Cantonese is ideal for students new to the language. Chinese-language schools in Thailand have also traditionally been conducted in Cantonese. [47] Mandarin predominates in much of the emergent Chinese American enclaves in eastern Los Angeles County and other areas of the metropolitan region. In Hong Kong, both words are pronounced as the latter. However, "Cantonese" may also refer to the primary branch of Chinese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang; this broader usage may be specified as "Yue speech" (粵語; 粤语; Yuhtyúh). The overwhelming majority of Chinese speakers in the United Kingdom use Cantonese, with about 300,000 British people claiming it as their first language. It is the system used in Meyer-Wempe and Cowles' dictionaries and O'Melia's textbook and many other works in the first half of the twentieth century. For consonants, some differences include M. /ɕ, tɕ, tɕʰ/ vs. C. /h, k, kʰ/; M. /ʐ/ vs. C. /j/; and a greater syllable coda diversity in Cantonese (such as syllables ending in -t, -p, or -k). [52], Cantonese is spoken by ethnic Chinese in Portugal who originate from Macau, the most established Chinese community in the nation with a presence dating back to the 16th century and Portuguese colonialism. Cantonese is a language within the Chinese language family originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) and its surrounding area in Southeastern China. In contrast, standard written Chinese continues to be used in formal literature, professional and government documents, television and movie subtitles, and news media. Cantonese is one of the world's most difficult languages to learn. This however led to protests in Guangzhou, which eventually dissuaded authorities from going forward with the proposal. [51] This is largely due to the presence of British Hong Kongers and the fact that many British Chinese also have origins in the former British colonies in Southeast Asia of Singapore and Malaysia. In English, the term "Cantonese" can be ambiguous. Although Wong also derived a romanization scheme, also known as the S. L. Wong system, it is not widely used as his transcription scheme. Welcome! Less prevalent, but still notable differences found among a number of Hong Kong speakers include: Cantonese vowels tend to be traced further back to Middle Chinese than their Mandarin analogues, such as M. /aɪ/ vs. C. /ɔːi/; M. /i/ vs. C. /ɐi/; M. /ɤ/ vs. C. /ɔː/; M. /ɑʊ/ vs. C. /ou/ etc. Together with its sister volume, Intermediate Cantonese, it forms a structured course of the essentials of Cantonese grammar. This narrow sense may be specified as "Canton language" or "Guangzhou language".[4]. Special attention is paid to topics which differ from English and European language structures. The Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is mutually intelligible with the Cantonese spoken in the mainland city of Guangzhou, although there exist some minor differences in accent, pronunciation, and vocabulary. As a visitor to Hong Kong, you will spend a lot of time in restaurants and shops. Bridgman and Williams based their system on the phonetic alphabet and diacritics proposed by Sir William Jones for South Asian languages. It maintained this status until the mid-2000s, when a heavy increase in immigration from Mandarin-speakers largely from Mainland China led to Mandarin surpassing Cantonese as the dominant Chinese dialect spoken. [38] For example, in New York City, Cantonese still predominates in the city's older, traditional western portion of Chinatown in Manhattan and in Brooklyn's small new Chinatowns in sections of Bensonhurst and in Homecrest. The vagueness of listing Chinese as the official language allows for the wide use of Cantonese… [5][6] In mainland China, the term "Guangdong speech" is also increasingly being used amongst both native and non-native speakers. tsen lei gon man di: Back to Learn Cantonese. Increasingly since the 1997 Handover, Cantonese has been used as a symbol of local identity in Hong Kong, largely through the development of democracy in the territory and desinicization practices to emphasise a separate Hong Kong identity. [20], Due to the popularity of Hong Kong popular culture, especially through drama series and popular music, Cantonese is widely understood by the Chinese in all parts of Malaysia, even though a large proportion of the Chinese Malaysian population is non-Cantonese. Cantonese is the dominant form of Chinese in Hong Kong. There will be more Cantonese resources and useful info to come. Chinese New Year Traditions, In Hong Kong, Use a Little Cantonese, the Locals' Language, Tripsavvy uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. You can now read the ebook (in the pane on the left), listen to the audio (pane to the right) and practice your pronunciation (use on the Pronunciation Tool tab on right) all at the same time.. This system was preceded by the Barnett–Chao system used by the Hong Government Language School. But which form of Chinese? Hong Kong and Macau. In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, the language is referred to as "Guangdong speech" or "Canton Province speech" (廣東話; 广东话; Gwóngdūng wá), or simply as "Chinese" (中文; Jūngmán). However, originals may be available through other sources such as cable television and online videos. Wong. [27], Cantonese is widely used as the inter-communal language among Chinese Cambodians, especially in Phnom Penh and other urban areas. Meanwhile, Cantonese has remained the official variety of Chinese in Hong Kong and Macau, both during and after the colonial period.[60]. Generally, plain stops are written with voiced consonants (/p/, /t/, /ts/, and /k/ as b, d, z/j, and g respectively), and aspirated stops with unvoiced ones, as in pinyin. However, more recent immigrants are arriving from the rest of mainland China and Taiwan and most often speak Standard Mandarin (Putonghua) as their native language,[36][37] although some may also speak their native local variety, such as Shanghainese, Hokkien, Fuzhounese, Hakka, etc. In contrast, less educated speakers pronounce the merge more frequently.[71]. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong (being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta) and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. While older Taiwanese immigrants have learned Cantonese to foster integration within the traditional Chinese American populations, more recent arrivals from the Mainland continue to use Mandarin exclusively. Some of the loanwords are even more popular than their Chinese counterparts. As a result, many loanwords are created and exported to China, Taiwan, and Singapore. Prepare for Your Trip Here, Impress Your Dutch Friends With These Essential Phrases, Here's How to Extend a Few Pleasantries in the Greek Language, Why Is the Character Upside Down? Cantonese has a reputation of being a hard language, but as with any language, as long as you have a good strategy and a solid routine, you can come a long way in just a few short months. The major systems are: Jyutping, Yale, the Chinese government's Guangdong Romanization, and Meyer–Wempe. The most notable difference between Hong Kong and Guangzhou pronunciation is the substitution of the liquid nasal (/l/) for the nasal initial (/n/) in many words. In part 13 of our Cantonese blog we look at how to use the language in the hairdressers or barbers. Generally speaking, Cantonese is a tonal language with six phonetic tones. As a major economic center of China, there have been recent concerns that the use of Cantonese in Guangzhou is diminishing in favour of Mandarin, both through the continual influx of Mandarin-speaking migrants from impoverished areas and strict government policies. Diacritics were used only for marking tones. "Entering" tones could be distinguished by their consonantal ending. They have been proven effective for learning Cantonese if you put in the effort to go through the lessons. [68] Despite a ban on Cantonese films by the Nanjing authority in the 1930s, Cantonese film production continued in Hong Kong which was then under British colonial rule. This has led to a linguistic discrimination that has also contributed to social conflicts between the two sides, with a growing number of Chinese Americans (including American-born Chinese) of Cantonese background defending the historic Chinese-American culture against the impacts of increasing Mandarin-speaking new arrivals.[38][48]. Choose from 500 different sets of basic cantonese languages flashcards on Quizlet. Cantonese, like every Chinese language, uses a character-based writing system, where each character corresponds to a block of meaning, not a sound. A list of Basic Chinese words and phrases translated into English. However, due to the rapid gentrification of Manhattan's Chinatown and with NYC's Cantonese and Fuzhou populations now increasingly shifting to other Chinese enclaves in the Outer Boroughs of NYC such as Brooklyn and Queens, but most mainly in Brooklyn's newer Chinatowns, the Cantonese speaking population in NYC are now increasingly becoming more mainly concentrated into Brooklyn's neighborhoods of Bensonhurst and Homecrest, also known as Bensonhurst's Little Hong Kong/Guangdong and Homecrest's Little Hong Kong/Guangdong while the Fuzhou population of NYC are increasingly becoming more mainly concentrated into Brooklyn's neighborhood of Sunset Park, also known as Little Fuzhou, Brooklyn, which is now increasingly resulting in NYC's growing Cantonese and Fuzhou enclaves to become more increasingly distanced and isolated away from each other including much more isolated away from other Chinese enclaves in the NYC borough of Queens that have more Mandarin and other various diverse Chinese dialect speakers. Lam 林, Chan 陳). A 2010 proposal to switch some programming on Guangzhou television from Cantonese to Mandarin was abandoned following massive public protests, the largest since the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Even knowing basic numbers in Cantonese can make shopping and dining out easier. Educated speakers often stick to the standard pronunciation but can exemplify the merged pronunciation in casual speech. Saying these universal greetings to the locals in their own language is polite and goes a long way toward encouraging good feelings and a good impression of both you and the United States in Hong Kong. Historically, finals that end in a stop consonant were considered as "checked tones" and treated separately by diachronic convention, identifying Cantonese with nine tones (九声六调). Hong Kong Cantonese has some minor variations in phonology, but is largely identical to standard Guangzhou Cantonese. Each of the 28 units deals with a grammatical topic and provides associated exercises, designed to put grammar into a communicative context. Already more than 540.000 language courses sold . However, some words under Macau's romanization system are same as Hong Kong's (e.g. Elijah Coleman Bridgman and Samuel Wells Williams in their "Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect" (1841) were the progenitors of a long-lived lineage of related romanizations with minor variations embodied in the works of James Dyer Ball, Ernst Johann Eitel, and Immanuel Gottlieb Genăhr (1910). Here you can find the translation of the 50 most important words and expressions into Cantonese. If you're going to Hong Kong, you might figure that English will be spoken widely, and you would be correct. Cantonese is from the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. A collection of useful phrases in Cantonese, a variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong, Macau, southern China, and a number of other places, in … Notably, all nationally produced non-Mandarin Chinese TV and radio programs were stopped after 1979. [30] Among Chinese-speaking Thai households, Cantonese is the fourth most-spoken variety of Chinese after Teochew, Hakka and Hainanese. The Zhongshan variant of Cantonese, with origins in the western Pearl River Delta, is spoken by many Chinese immigrants in Hawaii, and some in San Francisco and the Sacramento River Delta (see Locke, California); it is a Yuehai variety much like Guangzhou Cantonese, but has "flatter" tones. [2][3] This results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar but are pronounced differently. The BC system was also used in textbooks published by the Hong Kong government. Rory Boland is a guidebook author and travel writer who has lived and worked in Hong Kong and London. [55][56] Additionally, a distinct classical literature was developed in Cantonese, with Middle Chinese texts sounding more similar to modern Cantonese than other present-day Chinese varieties, including Mandarin. [57], As Guangzhou became China's key commercial center for foreign trade and exchange in the 1700s, Cantonese became the variety of Chinese interacting most with the Western World. As in the United States, the Chinese Canadian community traces its roots to early immigrants from Guangdong during the latter half of the 19th century. As in the United States, there is a divide between Cantonese-speakers and those speaking other mainland Chinese varieties. Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in overseas communities. Fun Cantonese Basic is a Cantonese learning program for 3-5 age group. Cantonese is spoken by a little over 15% of Chinese households in Singapore. to assert their identity in the face of new waves of immigration. It is also used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. a subject is followed by a verb then by an object, though this order is often violated because Cantonese is a topic-prominent language.Unlike synthetic languages, seldom do words indicate time, gender and number by inflection. Introduction - Basic Language - Characters - Dictionary - Calligraphy - Oracle bones - 100 Names - Three Characters - Thousand Characters - Traditional - Wade Giles - Strokes - Numbers - Date & Time - Lesson 2 - Lesson 3 - Proverbs - Poetry - Good Fortune - Cantonese- Pidgin The name of Tipson is associated with this new romanization which still embodied the phonology of the Fenyun to some extent. [citation needed] As a result, locals do not learn any of these systems. It is also the dominant and co-official language of Hong Kong and Macau. Hong Kong and Macau. Cantonese is the most common Chinese variety spoken among Chinese Canadians. A notable difference between Cantonese and Mandarin is how the spoken word is written; both can be recorded verbatim, but very few Cantonese speakers are knowledgeable in the full Cantonese written vocabulary, so a non-verbatim formalized written form is adopted, which is more akin to the Mandarin written form. Many speakers reflect their exposure to Vietnamese with a Vietnamese accent or a tendency to code-switch between Cantonese and Vietnamese.[18]. The vagueness of listing Chinese as the official language allows for the wide use of Cantonese… However, if you want to impress the locals, here are some basic phrases you might like to try. John Chalmers, in his "English and Cantonese pocket-dictionary" (1859) simplified the marking of tones using the acute accent to mark "rising" tones and the grave to mark "going" tones and no diacritic for "even" tones and marking upper register tones by italics (or underlining in handwritten work). Learning Cantonese? Historically, speakers called this variety "Canton speech" or "Guangzhou speech" (廣州話; 广州话; Gwóngjāu wá), although this term is now seldom used outside Guangzhou. [54] Cantonese was also used in the popular Yuè'ōu, Mùyú and Nányīn folksong genres, as well as Cantonese opera. [61] The proclamation of Mandarin as the official national language, however, was not fully accepted by the Cantonese authorities in the early 20th century, who argued for the "regional uniqueness" of their own local language and commercial importance of the region. Chinese-speaking immigrants from conflict zones in Southeast Asia, especially Vietnam, arrived as well, beginning in the mid-1970s and were also largely Cantonese-speaking. Systematic efforts to develop an alphabetic representation of Cantonese began with the arrival of Protestant missionaries in China early in the nineteenth century. Socioeconomic statuses are also a factor as well. a/aa, o/oh). Life in Hong Kong is characterized by the blending of Asian (mainly south Chinese), British and other Western influences, as well as the status of the city as a major international business centre. There are two main types of characters, traditional and simplified. Furthermore, Cantonese serves as the lingua franca with other Chinese communities in the region. Instances of the letter ⟨u⟩ under Hong Kong's romanization systems are often replaced by ⟨o⟩ under Macao's romanization systems (e.g. In contrast with Mandarin-speaking areas of China, Cantonese romanization systems are excluded in the education systems of both Hong Kong and the Guangdong province. For related languages and dialects, see, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFZhangYangDang2004 (, proposal to switch some programming on Guangzhou television, Literary and colloquial readings of Chinese characters, development of democracy in the territory, Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation, A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced According to the Dialect of Canton, Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority, List of English words of Cantonese origin, "The Hong Kong Observatory is one of the examples of the Hong Kong Government officially adopting the name "廣東話, "Basic Law, Chapter I : General Principles", "Move to Limit Cantonese on Chinese TV Is Assailed", "Why Cantonese spoken in Malaysia sounds different to Hong Kong Cantonese, and no it's not 'wrong, "Profile of the Singapore Chinese dialect groups", "Use of dialects interfere with learning of Mandarin & English", "The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand", "Mandarin Use Up in Chinese American Communities", "As Mandarin language becomes standard, Chinatown explores new identity", "In Chinatown, Sound of the Future Is Mandarin", "Bensonhurst becomes Brooklyn's second Chinatown", "With an Influx of Newcomers, Little Chinatowns Dot a Changing Brooklyn", "Mapping America: Every City, Every Block", https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/planning/download/pdf/data-maps/nyc-population/nny2013/chapter3.pdf, "The changing Chinatowns: Move over Manhattan, Sunset Park now home to most Chinese in NYC", "Why is Canada keeping out China's rich? [67] Popular native Mandarin-speaking singers, including Faye Wong, Eric Moo, and singers from Taiwan, have been trained in Cantonese to add "Hong Kong-ness" to their performances.[67]. As Cantonese is used primarily in Hong Kong, Macau, and other overseas Chinese communities, it is usually written with traditional Chinese characters. $49.99/month or $249.95/year for all languages. Cantonese, which is central to the Hong Kong identity, originated around the year 220, while Mandarin dates to the 13th century. Robert Morrison, the first Protestant missionary in China published a "Vocabulary of the Canton Dialect" (1828) with a rather unsystematic romanized pronunciation. The tones in Cantonese make it a tongue-twister and a high mountain to climb even if all you want to do is get familiar with a few simple phrases and words. Another popular scheme is Cantonese Pinyin, which is the only romanization system accepted by Hong Kong Education and Manpower Bureau and Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority. The increase of Mandarin-speaking communities has resulted in the rise of separate neighborhoods or enclaves segregated by the primary Chinese variety spoken. Cantonese films date to the early days of Chinese cinema, and the first Cantonese talkie, White Gold Dragon (白金龍), was made in 1932 by the Tianyi Film Company. Learn Simple Words and Phrases for Common Requests. While Teochew speakers form the majority of the Chinese population in Cambodia, Cantonese is often used as a vernacular in commerce and with other Chinese variant groups in the nation. Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and tribunals. Cantonese is an analytic language in which the arrangement of words in a sentence is important to its meaning. Due to the city's long standing as an important cultural center, Cantonese emerged as the prestige dialect of the Yue varieties of Chinese in the Southern Song dynasty and its usage spread around most of what is now the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. As a result, Mandarin is becoming more common among the Chinese American community. You might also think knowing a little Chinese might come in handy. Videos, podcast, grammar lessons, language tips and more to start you on your Cantonese learning journey. In Vietnam, Cantonese is the dominant language of the ethnic Chinese community, usually referred to as Hoa, which numbers about one million people and constitutes one of the largest minority groups in the country. (li go) h i gon dUng wa dim gon a? [62][69] From the mid-1970s to the 1990s, Cantonese films made in Hong Kong were very popular in the Chinese speaking world. [71], Lastly, the initials /kʷ/ and /kʷʰ/ can be merged into /k/ and /kʰ/ when followed by /ɔː/. In this article, "Cantonese" is used for Cantonese proper. So knowing a few words and phrases in Cantonese could come in handy as you wander around Hong Kong's bustling city center, marvel at its skyscrapers, check out the Temple Street Night Market, and have a one-of-a-kind suit made by one of Hong Kong's world-renowned tailors. Among the Chinese community in France, Cantonese is spoken by immigrants who fled the former French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) following the conflicts and communist takeovers in the region during the 1970s. This is a result of teachers being penalized for using other varieties as the teaching language from mid-1990s. In the 2011 census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics listed 336,410 and 263,673 speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese, respectively. The newly emerged Little Fuzhou eastern portion of Manhattan's Chinatown and Brooklyn's main large Chinatown in and around Sunset Park are mostly populated by Fuzhounese speakers, who often speak Mandarin as well. Cantonese is the dominant form of Chinese in Hong Kong. Cantonese has some substrate influence from Kra–Dai languages due to the historic proximity of speakers from both linguistic groups.[78]. (By study, I mean any activity where I was focused on learning the language. Basic Cantonese introduces the essentials of Cantonese grammar in a straightforward and systematic way. The dialect is also widely spoken as well in the town of Sekinchan in the district of We will teach you: How to say Hello! 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