Filtracion glomerular

INTRODUCCIÓN

En los riñones se filtra un liquido parecido al plasma a través de los capilares glomerulares hacia los túbulos renales (filtración glomerular).Conforme este filtrado glomerular pasa por los túbulos, su volumen se reduce y su composición se modifica por los procesos de reabsorción tubular(extracción de agua y solutos del liquido tubular) y la secreción tubular(secreción desolutos hacia el liquido tubular)Para formar la orina que entra a la pelvis renal. Una comparación de la composición del plasma y una muestra promedio de orina ilustra la magnitud de algunos de estos cambios y subraya la manera en que los desperdicios metabolitos importantes. además, la composición de la orina puede variar y muchos mecanismos homeostáticos reguladores minimizan o previenen los cambiosen la composición de liquido extracelular(LEC) mediante variaciones en la cantidad de agua y varios solutosespecificos en la orina.Apartir de la pelvis renal, la orina pasa a la vejiga y se expulsa al exterior mediante el procesod e micción .Los riñones también son órganos endocrinos, producen cininas y 1.25- dihidroxicolecalciferol, además de producir y secretar renina.

FILTRACIÓN GLOMERULARSe sabe que la sangre arterial que llega al riñón fluye por los capilares glomerulares a una gran presión, debido a que el diámetro de la arteriola eferente es menor que la aferente.
Impulsados por esa fuerte presión, el agua y las materias solubles del plasma sanguino tales como la glucosa, aminoácidos, sales y urea, atraviesan las paredes de los capilares y de cápsula de Bowman, incorporándosea las cavidades esta última. Solo escapan a la filtración glomerular los elementos figurados de la sangre y las proteínas plasmáticas, que son muy grandes para atravesar las membranas. El plasma que pasa por el glomérulo pierde un 20 por 100 de su volumen para formar el filtrado glomerular. En consecuencia, el líquido que pasa a la cavidad de la cápsula, llamado filtrado glomerular, es similar alplasma sanguino sin proteínas. El filtrado (alta mente diluido) fluye hacia el túbulo contorneado proximal.- a su vez, la sangre concentrada e hipertónica de los capilares glomerulares es llevada por la arteriola eferente, hacia la red capilar peritubular. Osmóticamente, esta sangre está lista para recuperar agua del filtrado que paso hacia el túbulo contorneado proximal. Por lo tanto el mecanismobásico de este proceso es puramente físico basado en la presión de filtración, facilitada por la disposición de las diferentes arteriolas.
La velocidad de la filtración glomerular, aumenta y disminuye con la presión arterial y, en consecuencia la presión de la filtración. La intensidad normal de filtración glomerular es de 125ml por minuto, que equivale a 180 l por día. ¡Esto es cuatro y mediaveces la cantidad de liquido de todo el cuerpo.

BARRERA DE FILTRACIÓN GLOMERULAR

Una vez en el interior del corpúsculo glomerular (ya en el interior de la cápsula de Bowman) la arteriola aferente pierde sus células yuxtaglomerulares, dividiéndose en pequeños capilares, formando la rete mirabile del corpúsculo renal. Estos capilares se unirán posteriormente para dar lugar a la arteriolaeferente que sólo posee en su recorrido células musculares.
Durante su recorrido en el interior de la cápsula de Bowman, los capilares están recubiertos por la llamada barrera de filtración glomerular que está compuesta por:
• la capa interna del endotelio
• una gruesa membrana basal
• una capa externa de unas células especiales llamadas podocitos
Las células endoteliales del glomérulorenal están perfectamente adaptadas para realizar la función de filtración. El citoplasma está limitado por una membrana fenestrada con numerosos poros de unos 70 nm, algunos de los cuales están cubiertos por un fino diafragman (seudofenestraciones.)
El segundo componente de la barrera de filtración es la membrana basal, mucho más gruesa que otras membranas basales ya que tiene entre 310 y 350…

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