hong kong bridge collapse

Thus, as soon as the tower toppled over, all the spans of the bridge collapsed because it was constructed as a continuous truss between anchorages. HONG KONG // Hong Kong authorities said they had launched an investigation after an air bridge collapsed at the city's airport, ripping the door off a Cathay Pacific plane and injuring a technician. The combination of uneven loading and changes in stress levels caused the pins to shift. It first verified with the military that no airplanes had passed through the vicinity at the time of the collapse. When the Point Pleasant Bridge was being constructed, the knowledge of long-term fatigue combined with the crevice corrosion was limited. Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must login to ask question. Tests of different eyebars showed a consistent composition between the specimens, which indicated that the fractured eyebar was not unique. It was wide enough to provide an air space for pollutants to attack the steel. Beyond The Headlines: Memories of Mosul three years after ISIS, Beyond The Headlines: The UAE's tactic against food crisis, Beyond the Headlines: Iran's secret affair with Al Qaeda, Ethiopia's Abiy Ahmed – from Nobel Peace Prize to the brink of war. Collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. The reaction most prevalent to the cause of the collapse was found in the eyebar chains and pins. Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge breakwater design scientific, reasonable and safe, says top gov’t official by Kris Cheng 10:59, 10 April 2018 22:01, 31 March 2020 Print However, the steel used was of unusually high strength, and its properties were not well known. A different theory of the collapse found support in the metallurgical aspects of the eyebar chains and the consequence of both loading and the environment on the steel. Three vehicles were caught in the bridge collapse, according to the prosecutor. Live loads produced by a heavy vehicle would cause the hole in the eyebar to be placed in tension. After the collapse of the Point Pleasant bridge, the President of the United States created a task force on bridge safety. However, there was no evidence that calculations were made for the correct dynamic loading. Hong Kong's rule of law has been pushed to the "brink of total collapse" after more than five months of protests, police have warned. A second worker was found dead Thursday evening after a work platform collapsed earlier at the construction site of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge. A total of 46 people lost their lives due to this accident. However, it was not large enough to allow engineers to inspect the connection. If the piers shifted, the towers would be out of alignment, inducing a sag in the cables. Terrifying moment massive bridge suddenly collapses in a Chinese city 'due to severe flooding', sending cars into a raging river. Hong Kong logs 3.57 million arrivals in 2020, lowest number on record. Further examination of the eyebar showed a crack that had occurred during manufacturing. The loss of one element would lead to the collapse of the bridge. The six-lane, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge is 34 miles long and includes an underwater tunnel that goes for four miles. The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (HZMB) is a 55-kilometre (34 mi) bridge–tunnel system consisting of a series of three cable-stayed bridges, an undersea tunnel, and four artificial islands.It is both the longest sea crossing and the longest open-sea fixed link in the world. At least three fishing boats were crushed and a fuel truck plunged into the water. It's one year since part of a motorway bridge outside Genoa collapsed, as cars and lorries sped across it. Officials: Multiple Deaths After Bridge Collapse Associated Press. A higher, not lower, factor of safety should have been used for this bridge. UP NEXT. The format categorizes the superstructure, the substructure, and the deck of the bridge into a set range of values. Stress concentration and fatigue can be a dangerous combination to cause the failure of a bridge. Lost your password? Plagued by the collapse of travel amid the coronavirus pandemic, arrivals to Hong Kong plummeted nearly 94 per cent year on year in 2020 to just 3.57 … Become VIP Member, Do you need to remove the ads? A towering bridge over a bay in eastern Taiwan has collapsed sending an oil tanker truck falling onto boats in the water below. The system of inspection is broken down into a standard procedure. The construction of the bridge started in 1920 and completed in 1928. Plagued by the collapse of travel amid the coronavirus pandemic, arrivals to Hong Kong plummeted nearly 94% year on … Once all the survivors had been rescued, and vehicles had been recovered, the operations shifted towards the removal of the collapsed structure. What are the Installations Required in a Tunnel? Country The next morning, the bridge authorities closed the bridge for traffic after noticing that the bridge was undergoing severe undulating motions. The hardness was not uniform throughout the thickness of the material. Also, the bridge was not designed with a sufficient number of redundancies. The other factor was the low temperature that on the day of the collapse, was near to freezing temperature. The bridge was constructed as a continuous truss between anchorages. Each joint contained two eyebars that connected to the suspension chains. Studies were conducted to identify the influence of the environment on the material. The American bridge company didn’t make its calculations and test results public. VIP members get additional benefits. The connection at the eyebar was not redundant because it consisted of only two pairs of eyebars. The substructure of the bridge was lacking the structural redundancy. The study of high-strength steel in the environment determined that the combination of stress corrosion (due to tensile stress in a corrosive environment) and fatigue corrosion (induced by the oscillation of loading in the corrosive environment) led to the propagation of the crack in the eyebar and caused the failure of the eyebar and ultimately caused the collapse of the bridge. Its objectives were to identify the cause of the failure of the bridge, to figure out how to fund a new bridge in an efficient manner, and to define a system of standards that would ensure the safety of the bridges in the country. The narrow gap between the eyebar and the connecting pin made the problem worse. To verify the fact that dynamic effects were not a factor leading to the collapse, vibration response, and dynamic stress amplification tests were performed on the St. Mary’s Bridge. A few hours after the collapse, the St. Mary’s Bridge was closed for safety as its design was similar to that of the Point Pleasant Bridge. A truck driver and teenage girl are killed when suspension cables snap on a French bridge, with prosecutors saying the deadly collapse was apparently caused by … Bridge Collapses in Taiwan; Oil Truck Plunges Moments Away From Crossing Several fishing boat workers were among at least a dozen people injured when the bridge… However, different opinions surfaced to justify the cause of this fracture. The warning came as … This sag would change the load distribution throughout the structure. In 1968, the U.S. federal government enacted a procedure for national bridge inspection. Point Pleasant Bridge Disaster: Collapse of the Eyebar-Chain Suspension Bridge, Mackinac Bridge: Construction of the Most Aerodynamically Stable Suspension Bridge. In 1996, the FHA created the nondestructive evaluation center in McLean, Virginia. On the night of 6 th November, a strong storm blew in the river where Tacoma Narrows Bridge was located. This change of symmetry caused uneven loads across the suspension spans. The bridge was designed using the deflection theory. When around three big trucks and 72 cars came to a halt, the bridge began to sway wildly and ultimately collapsed. The boarding bridge for a Cathay flight bound for Nagoya in Japan suddenly collapsed after all of the 262 passengers had boarded the aircraft last night, according to the Hong Kong Airport Authority and the airline. A similar design was used earlier in the St. Mary Bridge in West Virginia, which is also located on the Ohio river. The bridge collapsed about 9:30 a.m. in Nanfangao, a tiny but often-crowded Pacific coast fishing village. The evidence supporting failure by fatigue stress was based on changes in the live loads of the structure, which changed the orientation of the eyebars. Golden Gate Bridge: Construction of One of the Longest Suspension Bridges in the World, Chenab Bridge: Construction of the World’s Highest Rail Bridge, Austin Dam Failure: One of the Biggest Disasters in US History. Beyond The Headlines: How will Arab Americans vote in US presidential election. The tensile stress came from traffic loads and thermal effects. Following this incident, the U.S. government brought several new reforms to check the functionality and safety of bridges across the nation. Reduced factors of safety, 2 against ultimate strength and 1.5 against yielding, were used in the original bridge design. It was the second eyebar suspension bridge consisting of heat-treated eyebars, and a rocking base was constructed on the Ohio river. This stress increase was considered in terms of an increased percentage of the original live loads. This theory implied that the pin cap would become responsible for resisting the lateral forces within the connection. Donald Trump's final week in the White House - latest updates, UAE has struck balance between lives and livelihoods, top official says, Emir of Kuwait accepts government's resignation, Watch: Dubai vaccination centre set up in 72 hours to boost Covid-19 fight, Cybersecurity jobs boom in UAE with starting salaries of Dh40,000 or more, UAE vaccination doses near two million mark, Neom: Saudi Arabia's $500 billion ‘megacity of the future’, US sends more B-52 bombers to the Middle East, Huge archaeological find in Egypt includes 50 mummies and a temple, Oman closes land borders as coronavirus cases rise, Beyond the Headlines: how Egypt's #MeToo movement is changing the country. The National Bridge Inspection Standards were created in response to the collapse. The design of the bridge was unique because it had high tension eyebar chains, rocker towers, and a unique anchorage system. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email. Also, the company lacked technical justification for the use of low safety factors against ultimate and yielding strength. When the first eyebar failed, the entire connection was rotated and got separated from the eyebar. The following points describe the key lessons from the failure of the Point Pleasant Bridge: A total of 46 people died due to the collapse of the Point Pleasant Bridge. The cross-sections of the eyebar revealed a number of small cracks, about the size of pinholes. A 140-meter (459-foot) bridge has collapsed in northeast Taiwan, sending an oil tanker in the water and killing at least two people in fishing boats below. Point Pleasant Bridge, also known as Silver Bridge, was constructed over the Ohio River to provide the crossing for highway number-35 of the United States of America. The traffic on the bridge was crawling. The construction of the Point Pleasant Bridge was undertaken with the adoption of the latest technologies and new construction materials of the time. The eyebar would still be vulnerable to failure even if the resulting stress did not exceed the yield strength of the material. Beyond the Headlines: will vaccines help us return to normal in 2021? Inspection of the wreckage showed corrosion in many sections of the bridge. The works related to the pier foundation were carried out by the general contracting company of Pittsburgh, and the superstructure was constructed by the American bridge company of Pittsburgh. Since then, the design load has been increased to the heavier AASHTO HS-20. The Point Pleasant Bridge was a suspension bridge. Collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge: A Case Study, Petra Jordan: A World Heritage Site Under Risk. Some of them are discussed below: The U.S. Army Ordnance Group ruled out the possibilities of explosions and impacts. Also, the overall redundancy of the structure was poor. One of these, it appeared, had grown into the 33 mm flaw that had initiated the fracture. The traffic on the bridge was crawling. Design features also indicated that the towers were protected from possible contact with a vehicle. They reported no holes around the piers or any signs of damage to the piers. The exposed surface was thus left open to natural elements and created a built-in weakness. No one thought that a small, exposed surface flaw included in the design could have caused the fatigue failure and, ultimately, the collapse of the bridge. It was considered to be the most unique and cost-effective bridge. One feature considered to be potentially faulty was the substructure of the bridge. These factors made the high-strength steel vulnerable to the propagation of cracks and reduced the time for these cracks to occur. As the loads redistributed in the eyebar chain, the eyebar heads and the connecting pins would rotate. © 2009-2020 The Constructor. 1. Beyond the Headlines: How will Joe Biden change US policy in the Middle East? Each bridge was to be inspected every two years. Comments ( 0 ) Top Stories Tests showed that the eyebar pin connection was susceptible to pitting corrosion due to water, hydrogen sulfide, and salt. Other improvements to bridge management include nondestructive evaluation methods. These tests concluded that the live loads were not excessive and that the loading caused some vibrations in the individual members of the structure. The brittleness of the steel connection, and thus its susceptibility to sudden fracture, was enhanced by two factors. The twitterverse is showing the damage done at Hong Kong airport in a double airbridge collapse early last night. This adjustment would cause a sliding friction to occur rather than a rolling friction. This finding had significance, considering the extreme temperature changes in the region. Six people were missing after a bridge in Taiwan collapsed. However, certain characteristics suggested the cause of the failure of the material. The vehicles removed from the wreckage were checked for explosives, and structural members were inspected for signs of damage due to explosives. A total of six fishing workers from Indonesia and the Philippines were killed in the incident, which also left 12 … Read more.. The reassembly of the bridge showed evidence of a cleavage fracture in the eyebar on the Ohio side of the truss. A Cathay spokeswoman said its aircraft was "slightly damaged" but would not comment on whether the home carrier will seek compensation from the airport authorities. Key features of the Point Pleasant Bridge are described below: On a cold winter evening, the bridge suddenly collapsed due to the failure of the connection between the eyebar to the first joint on the north side of the bridge. The importance of this standardization is to allow the accurate rating and comparison of the bridges in the inventory. All affected passengers had left Hong Kong by Monday morning on alternative flight arrangements, she added. VIP members get additional benefits. Please follow the instructions below to allow notifications to be sent from The National. It was first conceived … A technician who was trapped in the falling bridge at the time was injured. The rear bridge then smashed into the head bridge, which was connected to the first class cabin, ripping a door off the A330 aircraft. Beyond the Headlines: will Azerbaijan's victory in Nagorno-Karabakh lead to lasting peace? Login to The Constructor to ask questions, answer people’s questions, write articles & connect with other people. This lack of consistency indicated that the eyebar had a more severe susceptibility to stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement in the harder section of the material. Beyond the Headlines: how will the US election play out? Further verification showed that the piers were in proper orientation. This failure caused the Ohio tower to fall and resulted in the collapse of the West Virginia tower. Dozens fell off the edge, tumbling 45m to the ground below, resulting in 43 deaths. The built-in flaw in the eyebar led to the sudden propagation of the crack when the fatigue stress exceeded its limit. This center works to identify inspection methods through the use of technology that includes laser measurement, monitoring systems, and ultrasonic tests. Towers of the bridge were supported on the rockers. Full story: sc.mp/26b9f This shift could have been induced by sediments around the piers being washed away (known as scour), a deficiency in the foundation that would cause the anchors and piers to move, or an impact to the piers from a water vessel. Eyebar chain greatly improved the bridge’s stiffness with less steel. The coal-burning factories and locomotives, and automotive pollution provided many airborne chemicals that could attack steel. HONG KONG // Hong Kong authorities said they had launched an investigation after an air bridge collapsed at the city's airport, ripping the door off a Cathay Pacific plane and injuring a technician. The new procedure provided exact protocols to be followed, and inspectors were required to be evaluated and certified by the Federal Highway Administration (FHA). We are investigating the cause of the incident," a spokesman from the Hong Kong Airport Authority said. The U.S. Bureau of Standards noted the fracture pattern on the eyebar. Double airbridge collapse at Hong Kong damages CX A330. However, the check for the safety of the bridge could not be verified due to the limitation on advancements in bridge engineering. Please enter your email address. Scour was eliminated because of the observations of the divers at the scene. Some travellers crossing the border had to walk across the construction site to bypass the section affected by the incident. The stress calculations that had been prepared for the design were verified for assurance that the bridge met the engineering criteria that were used at the time of construction. One opinion cited evidence for fatigue stress, whereas another one explained the cause as a combination of stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue. The linkage of the eyebar chains to the suspension cables by a pin created a section of the material that could not be protected by paint. This response was important because the Ohio River played a major role in the transportation of freight, and the wreckage prevented ships from navigating the waterway. The collapse prognosis of the bridge under a subsequent strong ground motion is then performed based on the updated model. The stresses that occurred during the collapse were less than the maximum stresses identified in the design. The system of the eyebar consisted of two force bar members with rounded eyes at each end; the anchorage system consisted of reinforced concrete troughs filled with concrete; the towers were constructed on octagon-shaped piles of reinforced concrete. The roof of Cellar Vall Llach, one of the leading wineries in Priorat, has collapsed due to heavy snows potentially destroying what remains of the 2018, 2019 and new 2020 vintages. The design was also evaluated, and the bridge did not provide any redundancy in the structural members that connected the suspension chain to the eyebars. Become VIP Member. The cause of the fatigue stress was the cycling loading applied on the bridge over the four decades. College of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China. On 15 th December 1967, the Point Pleasant Bridge collapsed due to heavy traffic on the bridge. This exceedance would cause the eyebar to detach from the pin, allowing the connection to rotate and thus cause the collapse. This analysis took into consideration static and dynamic loads. Testing showed that as the environmental temperatures decreased, the material was more susceptible to fracture. The first factor was the use of higher-strength steel, which is more brittle than the mild steel typically used for structural steel and reinforced concrete construction. In Taiwan, a huge 140 meter (459 feet) bridge collapsed in October of 2019, the event is known as the “Taiwan Bridge Collapse”. Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam warned that what Hong Kong is experiencing now is actually worse than the 2008 global financial crisis. The Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge (HZMB) will be one of the longest cross-boundary sea- crossing road infrastructure in the world providing a direct land transport connection between two shores of the Pearl River Delta, linking Hong Kong in the east to Macao and Zhuhai in the west. This oscillation caused fatigue stress in the member and could, over time, lead to failure. The bridge connected two major cities of Ohio and West Virginia, and provided direct access to their respective state capitals. 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Calculations showed a 3% loss of steel due to this degradation of material. Also, the designers did not consider the effect of unsymmetrical loading on fatigue. It was the holiday season and people were shuttling back and forth between the two cities via the bridge. The tests sought to establish the natural frequencies of the bridge and to determine the excitation created by heavy vehicle use. The oil tanker that was traversing the bridge at the time fell into the water and caused a fire when it struck three fishing boats that were below the bridge. The composition of the atmosphere also played a critical role in the state of the steel. Plagued by the collapse of travel amid the coronavirus pandemic, arrivals to Hong Kong plummeted nearly 94 per cent year on year in 2020 to just 3.57 million, the lowest number on record for the once-mighty tourism hub.The provisional numbers, published by the Hong Kong Tourism Board on Friday, marked a precipitous drop from the 55.9 million people welcomed in 2019, a year in which … Beyond the Headlines: Stories from 2020 of Covid-19 and beyond. Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. On 15th December 1967, the Point Pleasant Bridge collapsed due to heavy traffic on the bridge. It was also found that the eyebar was affected by the atmospheric conditions. All Rights Reserved. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. When the bridge was designed, the loading was based on the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) H-15 specifications for a 15-ton truck with 106 kN on the rear axle and 27 kN on the front axle. The 41 … It was possible for these forces to exceed the available resistance. TAIPEI: Taiwanese rescuers on Thursday (Oct 3) retrieved the body of the last missing person killed when a bridge collapsed two days ago, smashing onto fishing boats moored underneath. Further, no testing methods were developed to measure the strength of large eyebar chains. After the vehicle passed, the connection would respond in compression to return to its original static dead load. The experts investigated many possible causes of the collapse. The length of the Point Pleasant Bridge was 681 m. The Point Pleasant Bridge was constructed at the cost of USD 1.2 million. Less than a week ago, another bridge collapse, this time in Shenzhen, next door to Hong Kong injured 19 people, five seriously, the China Daily reported. Rocker towers were hinged at the bases to accommodate thermal deformations. A team assembled to look into the accident on the multibillion-dollar Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge which killed two workers and injured three … A sidewalk and a vehicle lane on the south side, instead of two vehicle lanes on the north end, caused this lack of symmetry. He said the technician's condition was stable. 22nd August 2020 – (Hong Kong) At the Zhuhai Gongbei Port construction site, it is suspected that part of the pedestrian footbridge has collapsed, and Customs clearance services were once disrupted today. Next morning, the steel in compression to return to normal in 2021 government several! Blew in the river where Tacoma Narrows bridge: a World Heritage site under Risk was susceptible... 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Headlines: How will Joe Biden change US policy in the region ultimate strength and 1.5 against yielding, used! The attack of pollutants on the Ohio tower to fall and resulted in inventory. Enhanced by two factors the company lacked technical justification for the use technology... Become VIP Member, do you need to remove the ads base constructed! Chain greatly improved the bridge over a bay in eastern Taiwan has sending. Americans vote in US presidential election the United States created a task force on bridge safety Nanfangao, a but! Two major cities of Ohio and West Virginia, and salt do not have permission to ask.! Were caught in the bridge were supported on the air bridge at the.... Most likely due to explosives took into consideration static and dynamic loads dangerous combination to the. Two cities via the bridge and to determine the excitation created by heavy vehicle use to its original static load! 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