Escuela filosófica fundada por Zenón de Citio hacia el año 300 a. C. Defienden un panteísmo providencialista (mundo físico animado y divino y encaminado a lo bello y perfecto).Identifican el bien con la virtud y la vida feliz con la vida virtuosa y de eliminación de las pasiones (apatía). Se sienten ciudadanos del mundo (cosmopolitismo).
La Stoa oscureció la Academiaplatónica y elLiceo aristotélico y fue la más importante de las cuatro escuelasfilosóficas de Atenas durante varios siglos.Zenón de Citiola fundóreuniendo a sus discípulos en una especie de pórtico decorado concuadros demúltiples colores (“Stoa Poikilé”, de ahí su nombre).
Enlógicahicieron importantes aportaciones en lo queahora llamamos lógica proposicional (frente a la lógica de los términosdeAristóteles), en el campo de la lógica de las inferencias y en el estudio de loselementos de la gramática griega. En teoría del conocimiento defendieron unateoría sensualista matizada: los objetos físicos afectana los sentidos, éstostransmiten su influencia al alma y provocan en ella las representaciones. Elconocimiento se da en la representación cataléptica o representación evidente.Hay representacionescatalépticas basadas en representaciones sensibles y otrasen la razón, como ocurre en matemáticas.
Susideas físicasestuvieron influidas por Heráclito yalgunas tesis de la física aristotélica.Distinguen dos principios: la materiainforme o principio pasivo y elLogoso principio activo. Creyeron quesólo las realidades corpóreas pueden obrar realmente, por lo que acabaronconcibiendo el Logos odivinidad, al igual que el alma, como algo corpóreo,aunque invisible, perfecto y sutil. Los dos principios,Logos o Pneuma y materia (hylé)están trabadossiempre y en todas partes, lo que fomenta una visiónpanteísta (la divinidadimpregna de su ser la totalidad de la realidad). Elpneumao fuerza oespíritu es el poder creador y principio racional que ordena todas las cosas,les da las características que…

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