Juicios orales

IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE JUICIOS ORALES EN MÉXICO
LIC. ROSALÍA FABIOLA HERREJÓN LÓPEZ
RESUMEN
La implementación de juicios orales en México significaría estar al nivel de otros países como es el caso de Estados Unidos e Inglaterra. Sin embargo para dicha implementación se necesitan demasiados cambios en la legislación así como en otros aspectos los cuales deberían de darse de manera gradual.Desgraciadamente en México los juicios son escritos o mejor dicho de “machote”, lo cual hace que los juicios se tornen muy largos, y costosos, además de crear desconfianza en la impartición de justicia de nuestro país.
PALABRAS CLAVE
Juicio, Juicios Orales, Juicios escritos, Impartición de justicia, Machote, Proceso, Legislación, Abogados, Ventajas.
1. ANTECEDENTES DE LOSJUICIOS ORALES
El Common Law, que rige en Inglaterra y en los Estados Unidos se caracteriza por tener a los precedentes como una de sus fuentes principales y por la oralidad de sus juicios. El nuestro, el Romano-Germánico, se caracteriza por tener a la ley como la fuente principal y por tener procedimientos eminentemente escritos.[1]
Es innegable la influencia de los Estados Unidos en todo elmundo, y México no es la excepción, por lo que es muy factible que en un futuro no muy lejano se implementen los juicios orales en nuestro país.

2. VENTAJAS DE LOS JUICIOS ORALES
Algunas de las ventajas que se tendrían con la implementación de juicios orales en nuestro país son:
a) Agilización en el trámite de juicios, lo cual conlleva un menor costo en dicho trámite, así como aevitar la sobrecarga de trabajo.
b) Acercamiento entre el Juez que conoce con las partes del juicio, lo cual generaría confianza en la impartIción de justicia y evitaría actos de corrupción.
c) Habría mayor concentración en las actuaciones y todo el litigio se resolvería en una sola audiencia de pruebas, alegatos y sentencia,
d) Se generaría el acercamiento a la verdad histórica y se daríatransparencia en los procesos.
e) En el aspecto ecológico representa hoy en día una preocupación generalizada y el hecho de implementar los juicios orales significaría una considerable disminución en el consumo del papel que se utiliza para llevar a cabo los juicios escritos y esto repercutiría a final de cuentas a salvaguardar la ecología. Es increíble darse cuenta que existen expedientes quellegan a tener miles de hojas de papel.
f) Asegurar el compromiso por parte de los abogados, así como de los impartidotes de justicia a un estudio exhaustivo de la ciencia del Derecho, dejando a un lado los famosos “machote”.
3. DESVENTAJAS DE JUICIOS ORALES
Las principales desventajas que se tienen en nuestro país para la implementación de juicios orales son las siguientes:
a) Loprincipal y fundamental que se requiere es de un presupuesto para la capacitación de los impartidores de justicia, así como para el rediseño e incluso creación de espacios arquitectónicos.
b) Una gran desventaja es que nuestro país tiene la costumbre del Derecho escrito, y resultaría un tanto difícil cambiar de repente la forma en que trabajan abogados así como los impartidotes de justicia.
c)Tendrían que realizarse reformas tanto a las constituciones como a los diversos Códigos de todo el país, lo cual implicaría un gran trabajo por parte de los legisladores.
4. ALGUNOS AVANCES EN MATERIA DE JUICIOS ORALES EN MÉXICO
Los Juicios orales en nuestro país no son materia nueva puesto que ya se han celebrado éstos juicios, ejemplo de ello son:

1. El Congreso del Estado de Nuevo Leónaprobó en junio del año 2004 las reformas legislativas para permitir los juicios orales, donde un juez escucha los argumentos de la procuraduría, en la presencia del acusado, la defensa y público.
Y es así como el 23 de febrero de 2005 en la ciudad de Monterrey, tras 13 horas de audiencia concluye una sentencia de tres años de prisión por homicidio imprudencial, fue el fallo que determinó un…

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