La reingenieria de procesos

La reingeniería de procesos
Luis Armando Palma Arteaga.
La reingeniería de procesos como estrategia de cambio organizativo.

Es una metodología para la optimización institucional. La reingeniería de procesos tal como la concibieron sus creadores se define como “ el replanteamiento fundamental y el rediseño radical de los procesos del negocio para lograr mejoras espectaculares dentro demedidas críticas y contemporáneas de desempeño, tales como coste, calidad, servicio y rapidez».(Hammer,1994).
Ante esta definición y siguiendo el concepto de reingeniería, este tipo de estrategia abarca objetivos radicales, donde la innovación siempre está presente; y donde el papel de los sistemas de información es fundamental para poder implementarla.
En organizaciones donde existan modelos defuncionamiento ya establecidos, la reingeniería de procesos es de difícil implantación, ya que esos mismos modelos llevan asociados una serie de recursos y normativas de funcionamiento que podrán modificarse, pero no hasta el grado de flexibilidad exigido en una reingeniería de procesos. La reingeniería de procesos esta recomendada en aquellos cambios organizativos que permitan olvidarse del procesoactual y partir de cero.
La reingeniería de procesos, es un pensamiento nuevo y el rediseño fundamental de los procesos operativos, así como la estructura organizacional, orientado hacia las competencias fundamentales de la organización para lograr mejoras dramáticas en el desempeño organizacional.
Hammer y Champy definen a la reingeniería de procesos como la re concepción fundamental y elrediseño radical de los procesos de negocios para lograr mejoras dramáticas en medidas de desempeño tales como en costos, calidad, servicio y rapidez. Por lo tanto se trata de una reconcepción fundamental y una visión holística de una organización. Preguntas como: ¿por qué hacemos lo que hacemos? y ¿por qué lo hacemos como lo hacemos?, llevan a los integrantes de la organización En nuestro caso a losmaestros y demás personal a interiorizarse en los fundamentos de los procesos de trabajo en beneficio de la escuela.
La reingeniería de procesos es radical hasta cierto punto, ya que busca llegar a la raíz de las cosas, no se trata solamente de mejorar los procesos, sino y principalmente, busca reinventarlos, con el fin de crear ventajas competitivas osadas, con base en los avances tecnológicos.Debe distinguirse claramente entre la reingeniería de procesos, la cual implica cambios radicales en el “cómo se hacen las cosas”, en contraposición a la reingeniería de negocios, la cual tiende a un cambio radical y total en la estrategia, yendo mucho más allá del “como” para implicarse también en “que se produce” (u ofrece), y en “a quién se ofrece”.
La transversalidad profesional.

Elincremento de la calidad de los productos y servicios solo se asegura de forma significativa a través de la reingeniería de procesos, la mejora de la eficacia y de la rentabilidad institucionales, basadas en el cliente, no resulta tanto de realizar con mas calidad y con mayor rapidez cada componente o tarea, sino en la calidad y rapidez con que se integran los componentes y tareas para responder a lasnecesidades de cada uno de sus clientes.
La reingeniería es la revisión fundamental y el cambio radical del diseño de procesos, para mejorar drásticamente el rendimiento en términos de costo, calidad, servicio y rapidez. La reingeniería de procesos es una especie de reinvención, más que un mejoramiento gradual. Se trata de una medicina fuerte que no siempre resulta necesaria o exitosa.

Elobjetivo es lograr incrementos significativos en el corto plazo, en contraposición a incrementos acumulativos propios de los sistemas de mejora continua, los cuales si bien generan incrementos de magnitud requieren de una mayor cantidad de tiempo. En el caso específico del kaizen y gracias a la implementación del Just-in-Time es factible también la obtención de incrementos significativos aunque en…

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