Laboratorio de fisica 1 teoria de errores

REPÚBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA MINISTERIO DEL PODER POPULAR PARA LA DEFENSA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL EXPERIMENTAL DE LA FUERZA ARMADA NACIONAL

INGENIERÍA CIVIL

Régimen Nocturno 2do Semestre Sección 01 Asignatura Laboratorio de Física 1 Practica N°1 TEORIA DE ERRORES

Introducción Una de las principales características de todas las ingenierías se basa en las mediciones de sus magnitudesde trabajo y de cuan precisas pueden ser estas; determina la fiabilidad y seguridad de cada proyecto que en que se trabaje. El cálculo de los errores es de suma importancia para todo ingeniero. Hay varias formas de realizar una medición, pueden ser directas o indirectas y múltiples instrumentos que sirven para tal fin, dependiendo de la magnitud a medir.
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Si se trata de longitudesgrandes existen la cinta métrica, la regla graduada, el vernier etc. Si se trata de longitudes muy pequeñas o espesores de objetos existe el tornillo micrométrico o el vernier. Si se trata de tiempo se puede medir con relojes digitales o analógicos. Si se trata de masas se usa una balanza o báscula. Si se trata de volúmenes se usan pipetas graduadas, y envases previamente calibrados para loslíquidos. También se pueden hacer mediciones de magnitudes indirectamente como de la velocidad, aceleración, densidad, etc. Estas se realizan mediante cálculos utilizando como datos las mediciones directas a través de los instrumentos mencionados anteriormente.

La correcta utilización de los instrumentos, las condiciones ambientales, el tipo de objeto a medir son algunos de los factores que puedenafectar una medición, hay que tener en cuenta siempre que al hacer mediciones se lleva intrínsecamente unos errores que se pueden minimizar utilizando varias técnicas descritas en esta practica. Objetivo Adiestrar al estudiante en el cálculo del error absoluto y relativo tanto en la s mediciones directas como en las indirectas y en la correcta expresión de las mediciones.

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Marco TeóricoMedición Es comparar la cantidad desconocida que queremos determinar y una cantidad conocida de la misma magnitud, que elegimos como unidad. Teniendo como punto de referencia dos cosas: un objeto (lo que se quiere medir) y una unidad de medida ya establecida ya sea en Sistema Ingles, Sistema Internacional, o Sistema Decimal. Al resultado de medir lo llamamos Medida. Cuando medimos algo se debe hacercon gran cuidado, para evitar alterar el sistema que observamos. Por otro lado, no hemos de perder de vista que las medidas se realizan con algún tipo de error, debido a imperfecciones del instrumental o a limitaciones del medidor, errores experimentales, por eso, se ha de realizar la medida de forma que la alteración producida sea mucho menor que el error experimental que se pueda cometer. Lamedida o medición es directa, cuando disponemos de un instrumento de medida que la obtiene, así si deseamos medir la distancia de un punto «A» a un punto «B», y disponemos del instrumento que nos permite realizar la medición. Unidades de medida Al patrón de medir le llamamos también Unidad de medida. Debe cumplir estas condiciones: 1º.- Ser inalterable, esto es, no ha de cambiar con el tiempo ni enfunción de quién realice la medida. 2º.- Ser universal, es decir utilizada por todos los países. 3º.- Ha de ser fácilmente reproducible. Reuniendo las unidades patrón que los científicos han estimado más convenientes, se han creado los denominados Sistemas de Unidades. Sistema Internacional ( S.I.) Este nombre se adoptó en el año 1960 en la XI Conferencia General de Pesos y Medidas, celebrada enParís buscando en él un sistema universal, unificado y coherente que toma como Magnitudes fundamentales: Longitud, Masa, Tiempo,

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Intensidad de corriente eléctrica, Temperatura termodinámica, Cantidad de sustancia, Intensidad luminosa. Toma además como magnitudes complementarias: Angulo plano y Angulo sólido. LA PRESICION Y LA EXACTITUD EN LA MEDICION La necesidad que ha tenido el ser…

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