Liderazgo, tipologia y estilos

I Cuatrimestre 2009

Definición de liderazgo

El liderazgo es el proceso de influir en otros y apoyarlos para que trabajen con entusiasmo en el logro de objetivos comunes.
Se entiende como la capacidad de tomar la iniciativa, gestionar, convocar, promover, incentivar, motivar y evaluar a un grupo o equipo.
Es el ejercicio de la actividad ejecutiva en un proyecto, de forma eficaz yeficiente, sea éste personal, gerencial o institucional.
El liderazgo implica que haya una persona (líder) que pueda influir y motivar a los demás (seguidores). De ahí que en los estudios sobre liderazgo se haga énfasis en la capacidad de persuasión e influencia.
Tradicionalmente, a la suma de estas dos variables se le ha denominado carisma. Sin embargo, los estudios actuales enpsicología y sociología han concluido que el carisma no tiene la importancia que históricamente se le había otorgado y que hay otros factores que son más determinantes a la hora de construir el liderazgo.

Tipos de liderazgo
Según la opinión de expertos en Desarrollo Organizacional, existen pocos tipos de liderazgo.
En opinión de otros, no es que existan varios tipos de liderazgo: “elliderazgo es uno y, como los líderes son personas (individuos con características personales definidas), las clasificaciones corresponden a la forma como ejercen o han adquirido la facultad de dirigir, circunstancia que no necesariamente implica que sea un líder”.
Tres tipos de liderazgo que se refieren a formas variadas de autoridad:
1. Líder tradicional: Es aquel que hereda el poder porcostumbre o por un cargo importante, o que pertenece a un grupo familiar de élite que ha tenido el poder desde hace generaciones. Por ejemplo: un reinado.
2. Líder legal: Es aquel que obtiene el poder mediante una persona o un grupo de personas, con capacidad, conocimientos y experiencia para dirigir a los demás. El término legal se refiere a las leyes o normas jurídicas. Un líder legal essimplemente aquel que cumple con la ley. Para ser un líder, es requisito inevitable que cumpla con ella.
3. Líder legítimo: El término líder legal está mal empleado. Podríamos pensar en «líder legítimo» y «líder ilegítimo». El primero es aquella persona que adquiere el poder mediante procedimientos autorizados en las normas legales, mientras que el líder ilegítimo es el que adquiere su autoridad através del uso de la ilegalidad. Al líder ilegítimo ni siquiera se le puede considerar líder, puesto que una de las características del liderazgo es precisamente la capacidad de convocar y convencer, así que un «liderazgo por medio de la fuerza» no es otra cosa que carencia del mismo.
Lo único que puede distinguir a un líder es que tenga seguidores: sin seguidores no hay líder.
La palabra»liderazgo» en sí misma puede significar un grupo colectivo de líderes, o puede significar características especiales de una figura célebre (como un héroe). También existen otros usos para esta palabra, en los que el líder no dirige, sino que se trata de una figura de respeto (como una autoridad científica, gracias a su labor, a sus descubrimientos, a sus contribuciones a la comunidad). Junto conel rol de prestigio que se asocia a líderes inspiradores, un uso más superficial de la palabra «liderazgo» puede designar a entidades innovadoras, aquellas que durante un periodo de tiempo toman la delantera en algún ámbito, como alguna corporación o producto que toma la primera posición en algún mercado.
Arieu define al líder como «la persona capaz de inspirar y asociar a otros con unsueño». Por eso es tan importante que las organizaciones tengan una misión con alto contenido trascendente, ya que es una manera muy poderosa de reforzar el liderazgo de sus directivos.
Existe una regla fundamental en el liderazgo que es la base para que un buen líder, cualquiera que sea, lleve a cabo un liderazgo efectivo. La mayoría de los autores la nombran la regla de oro en las relaciones…

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