Llantas

Un neumático (del griego ???????????, relativo al pulmón, por el aire que lleva), también denominado cubierta en algunas regiones, es una pieza toroidal de caucho que se coloca en las ruedas de diversos vehículos y máquinas. Su función principal es permitir un contacto adecuado por adherencia y fricción con el pavimento, posibilitando el arranque, el frenado y la guía.

Los neumáticosgeneralmente tienen hilos que los refuerzan. Dependiendo de la orientación de estos hilos, se clasifican en diagonales o radiales. Los de tipo radial son el estándar para casi todos los automóviles modernos.
Tipos de neumáticos
Por su construcción existen dos tipos de neumáticos:

Diagonales: en su construcción las distintas capas de material se colocan de forma diagonal, unas sobre otras.
Radiales: en estaconstrucción las capas de material se colocan unas sobre otras en linea recta, sin sesgo. Este sistema permite dotar de mayor estabilidad y resistencia a la cubierta.
Igualmente y según su uso de cámara tenemos:
Neumáticos tubetype: aquellos que usan cámara y una llanta específica para ello. No pueden montarse sin cámara. Se usan en algunos 4×4, y vehículos agrícolas.
Neumáticos tubeless o sincámara: estos neumáticos no emplean cámara. Para evitar la pérdida de aire los flancos de la cubierta se «pegan» a la llanta durante el montaje, por lo que la llanta debe ser específica para estos neumáticos. Se emplea prácticamente en todos los vehículos.

Dimensiones y simbología
Artículo principal: Códigos en neumáticos

135/80 R 14 80P:135 milímetros de ancho; 80% de perfil; neumático radial;14 pulgadas; 400kg de carga máxima; 150km/h de velocidad máxima
Las dimensiones de los neumáticos se representan de la siguiente forma:
205/ 55 / 16 – 91 W
Dónde:
* El primer número identifica el ancho de sección (de pared a pared) de la cubierta, expresado en milímetros.
* El segundo número es el perfil, o altura del lado interior de la cubierta y se expresa en el porcentaje del ancho decubierta que corresponde al flanco o pared de la cubierta. En algunas cubiertas se prescinde del mismo, considerando que equivale a un perfil 80.
* El tercer número es el diámetro de la circunferencia interior del neumático en pulgadas, o también, el diámetro de la llanta sobre la que se monta.
* El cuarto número indica el índice de carga del neumático. Este índice se rige por unas tablasen que se recogen las equivalencias en kg del mismo. En el ejemplo el índice «91» equivale a 615 kg por cubierta.
* Finalmente la letra indica la velocidad máxima a la que el neumático podra circular sin romperse o averiarse. Cada letra equivale a una velocidad y en el ejemplo el código W supone una velocidad de hasta 270 km/h.
Es vital para la seguridad, respetar estrictamente las medidas delas cubiertas, así como el índice de carga y código de velocidad. Instalar cubiertas con menores índices puede ser causa de accidente.
En las indicaciones en los laterales de los neumáticos, también se puede leer la fecha de fabricación. Junto a la marca DOT, un grabado de cuatro cifras indica cuando fue creado. Los dos primeros números indican la semana del año, y los dos siguientes, el año defabricación. Así, un neumático con el código DOT 4905, fue fabricado en la 49ª semana del año 2005.[2]

Rangos de carga máxima |
Código de carga | Carga máxima (kg) |
20 | 80 | |
30 | 106 | |
35 | 121 | |
40 | 136 | |
45 | 165 | |
50 | 190 | |
55 | 218 | |
60 | 250 | |
65 | 290 | |
70 | 335 | |
75 | 387 | |
80 | 450 | |
85 | 515 | |
90 | 600 | |
95 | 690 | |
100 |800 | |
105 | 925 | |
110 | 1060 | |
115 | 1215 | |
120 | 1400 | |
Los códigos no se limitan a los presentes aquí, existen otros muchos códigos intermedios graduales | Rangos de velocidad |
Símbolo de Rango | Velocidad (km/h) |
A1 | 5 | |
A2 | 10 | |
A3 | 15 | |
A4 | 20 | |
A5 | 25 | |
A6 | 30 | |
A7 | 35 | |
A8 | 40 | |
B | 50 | |
C | 60 | |
D | 65 | |
E | 70 |…

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