Marco legal



1.1 Principios del derecho constitucional
La libertad del Estado para restringirla es limitada al principio. Es preciso que el poder del Estado se circunscriba y se encierre en un sistema de competencias
El Derecho constitucional es una rama del Derecho político cuyo campo de estudio incluye el análisis de lasleyes fundamentales que definen un Estado. De esta manera, es materia de estudio todo lo relativo a la forma de Estado, forma de gobierno, derechos fundamentales y la regulación de los poderes públicos, incluyendo tanto las relaciones entre poderes públicos, como las relaciones entre los poderes públicos y los ciudadanos.

1.2 Constitución en sentido material y formal

Constitución en sentidomaterial
Está constituida por preceptos que regulan la creación de normas jurídicas generales y la creación de leyes

a) Procedimiento de la creación de las Normas Jurídicas Generales
b) Normas referentes a los órganos estatales y sus competencias
c) Relación de los hombres con el control del estado

Constitución en sentido formal
Documento solemne, conjunto de normas jurídicasque solo pueden ser modificadas mediante la observancia de las prescripciones especiales cuyo objeto es dificultar la modificación de tales normas

1.3 Parte dogmática y Orgánica

Dogmática: Establece las garantías individuales y se reconocen derechos y libertades sociales (Art. 1-29)

Garantías Básicas
– Igualdad: 1, 2, 4, 12, 13, 15
– Libertad: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 24, 28
-Seguridad: 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23
– Propiedad: 27
– Derechos políticos: 35
– Derechos sociales: 3, 27, 123

Orgánica: Corresponde a la división de poderes de la unión y el funcionamiento de los órganos institucionales del Estado

División de Poderes

Legislativo, Capítulo II Artículo 50-79

Congreso de la Unión, conformado por:

1. Diputados (300uninominales y 200 plurinominales)2. Senadores (128)

– Elabora leyes
– Discute problemas del país
– Vigila acciones de diputados
– Aprueba ingresos y gastos del gobierno

Ejecutivo, Cap. III (80-93)

Se deposita en:
– Supremo Poder Ejecutivo de la Unión, en un solo individuo que se denominará “Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos”, el cual se elegirá cada 6 años.

– Capta recursos y los administra- Gobierna de acuerdo a lo que dicen las leyes
– Dirige las relaciones con otros países
– Nombra a sus colaboradores más cercanos
– Hacer cumplir las leyes que suele aprobar el gobierno o el propio jefe del Estado.
– Tiene como punto de apoyo a la PGR
– Gabinete: Secretarios, Sector Centralizado y Presidente de la Republica

Judicial, Cap. IV (94-107)

Se deposita en:

– SupremaCorte de Justicia de la Nación, el Tribunal Electoral
– Tribunales Colegiados y Unitarios de Circuito
– Juzgados de Distrito
La Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación de México es el tribunal supremo. Está formada por 11 Ministros, de los cuales uno es su Presidente. Sus miembros son elegidos por el Senado, de entre una terna que le propone el Presidente de la República, por un periodo máximo de15 años, sin derecho a reelección.
Se integra de 2 diferentes maneras:
1. Pleno: Se integra por los 11 Ministros de la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación. Para los casos que sean competencia de la Suprema Corte, un Ministro, denominado Ministro Ponente, analiza el caso y elabora un proyecto de resolución, el cual los otros Ministros se encargan de votarlo a favor o en contra.
2. Salas: LaSCJN se integra de 2 Salas. La Primera Sala tiene competencia sobre asuntos de materia Civil y Materia Penal, mientras que la Segunda Sala tiene competencia para conocer asuntos de materia Administrativa y Laboral. Cada sala se integra de 5 Ministros ya que el Presidente de la Suprema Corte no integra sala. Cada año tienen dos períodos de sesiones: el primero comienza el primer día hábil del mes…

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