Metodos para la planeacion agregada

METODOS PARA LA PLANEACION AGREGADA

METODO GRAFICO Y DE DIAGRAMAS

Los métodos gráficos y de diagramas son populares debido a que son fáciles de entender y de utilizar. Estos planes trabajan con unas cuantas variables a la vez, comparando a los planeadores comparar la demanda proyectada con la capacidad existente.

SE SIGUEN 5 PASOS EN EL METODO GRAFICO

1.- Determinar la demanda de cadaperiodo.
2.- Determinar cual es la capacidad para el tiempo regular, tiempo extra y la subcontratación en cada periodo.
3.- Encontrar los costos de la mano de obra, los costos de contratar y despedir y los costos de mantenimiento del inventario.
4.- Considerar políticas de la compañía que se puedan aplicar a los trabajadores o a los niveles de inventario.
5.- Desarrollarplanes alternativos y examinar sus costos totales.

Ejemplo:

Un fabricante de abastos para techo ha desarrollado pronósticos mensuales destinados a un importante producto y presento el periodo de enero a junio.

La demanda por día se calcula simplemente dividiendo la demanda esperada, entre el número de días laborales de cada mes.
Para ilustrar la naturaleza del problema de plantaciónagregada, la empresa también genera en una grafica la demanda diaria cada mes. La línea punteada a través de la grafica representa la tasa de producción que se requiere para cumplir la demanda promedio. Se calcula por:

Requerimiento promedio = demanda total promedio = 6200 50 unidades/día
Num. De días de producción 124

MES DEMANDA DIAS DE DEMANDA POR
ESPERADAPRODUCCION DIA (CALCULADA)
900/22=41
Enero 900 22 41
Febrero 700 18 39
Marzo 800 21 38
Abril 1200 21 57
Mayo 1500 22 68
Junio 1100 20 55
6200 124

[pic]

EVALUE LOS SIGUIENTES PLANES DE PRODUCCION

PLAN 1

Mantenga una fuerza de trabajo constante a través delperiodo de los 6 meses con una tasa de producción promedio y un inventario inicial = 0 y un inventario final = 0

PLAN 2

Mantenga una fuerza de trabajo constante a un nivel necesario para el mes de más baja demanda y cumpla con la demanda de cada periodo utilizando la subcontratación.

PLAN 3

Contrate o despida trabajadores según sea necesario, para producir exactamente la demanda decada periodo.

Al evaluar estos planes considere los siguientes costos:

1.- Costo de almacenamiento o manejo de inventario. $ 5/unidad/mes
2.- Costo de subcontratación. $ 10/unidad
3.- Tasa promedio de pago. $ 5/hora (40/día)
4.- Costo de la hora extra. $ 7/hora (después de 8 horas normales)
5.- Horas de mano de obra para producir una unidad.$ 1.6 hrs./ unidad
6.- Costo de incrementar la tasa de producción (entrenamiento y contratación). $ 10/unidad
7.- Costo de disminuir la tasa de producción (despidos) $ 15/unidad

SOLUCION PLAN 1

(I0=0) (If =0)
Mes Días producción promedio demanda cambio mensual inventario
Laborales 50 unidades/día estimadadel inventario final
1100 – 900
Enero (22) 1100 900 + 200 200 200+200=400
Febrero (18) 900 700 + 200 400 400+250=650
Marzo (21) 1050 800 + 250 650 650-150=500
Abril (21) 1050 1200- 150 500 500-400=100
Mayo (22) 1100 1500 – 400 100 100-100=0
Junio (20) 1000 1100 -100 0.0
124 6200 1850

En el mes de enero mi producción promedio es de 1100 unidades y tengo una demanda de 900 unidades, me…

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