Microcontroladores

Recibe el nombre de controlador el dispositivo que se emplea para el gobierno de uno o varios procesos. Por ejemplo, el controlador que regula el funcionamiento de un horno dispone de un sensor que mide constantemente su temperatura interna y, cuando traspasa los límites prefijados, genera las señales adecuadas que accionan los efectores que intentan llevar el valor de la temperatura dentro delrango estipulado.
Un microcontrolador es un circuito integrado de alta escala de integración que incorpora la mayor parte de los elementos que configuran un controlador.
Un microcontrolador dispone normalmente de los siguientes componentes:
Procesador o UCP (Unidad Central de Proceso).
Memoria RAM para Contener los datos.
Memoria para el programa tipo ROM/PROM/EPROM.
Líneas de E/S para comunicarsecon el exterior.
Diversos módulos para el control de periféricos (temporizadores, Puertas Serie y Paralelo, CAD: Conversores Analógico/Digital, CDA: Conversores Digital/Analógico, etc.).
Generador de impulsos de reloj que sincronizan el funcionamiento de todo el sistema.
Los productos que para su regulación incorporan un microcontrolador disponen de las siguientes ventajas:
Aumento deprestaciones: un mayor control sobre un determinado elemento representa una mejora considerable en el mismo.
Aumento de la fiabilidad: al reemplazar el microcontrolador por un elevado número de elementos disminuye el riesgo de averías y se precisan menos ajustes.
Reducción del tamaño en el producto acabado: La integración del microcontrolador en un chip disminuye el volumen, la mano de obra y los stocks.Mayor flexibilidad: las características de control están programadas por lo que su modificación sólo necesita cambios en el programa de instrucciones.
El microcontrolador es en definitiva un circuito integrado que incluye todos los componentes de un computador. Debido a su reducido tamaño es posible montar el controlador en el propio dispositivo al que gobierna. En este caso el controlador recibe elnombre de controlador empotrado (embedded controller).
Aplicaciones de los microcontroladores.
Los microcontroladores están siendo empleados en multitud de sistemas presentes en nuestra vida diaria, como pueden ser juguetes, horno microondas, frigoríficos, televisores, computadoras, impresoras, módems, el sistema de arranque de nuestro coche, etc. Y otras aplicaciones con las que seguramente noestaremos tan familiarizados como instrumentación electrónica, control de sistemas en una nave espacial, etc. Una aplicación típica podría emplear varios microcontroladores para controlar pequeñas partes del sistema. Estos pequeños controladores podrían comunicarse entre ellos y con un procesador central, probablemente más potente, para compartir la información y coordinar sus acciones, como, dehecho, ocurre ya habitualmente en cualquier PC.
¿Qué microcontrolador emplear?
A la hora de escoger el microcontrolador a emplear en un diseño concreto hay que tener en cuenta multitud de factores, como la documentación y herramientas de desarrollo disponibles y su precio, la cantidad de fabricantes que lo producen y por supuesto las características del microcontrolador (tipo de memoria deprograma, número de temporizadores, interrupciones, etc.):
Aplicación. Antes de seleccionar un microcontrolador es imprescindible analizar los requisitos de la aplicación:
• Procesamiento de datos: puede ser necesario que el microcontrolador realice cálculos críticos en un tiempo limitado. En ese caso debemos asegurarnos de seleccionar un dispositivo suficientemente rápido para ello. Por otro lado, habráque tener en cuenta la precisión de los datos a manejar: si no es suficiente con un microcontrolador de 8 bits, puede ser necesario acudir a microcontroladores de 16 ó 32 bits, o incluso a hardware de coma flotante. Una alternativa más barata y quizá suficiente es usar librerías para manejar los datos de alta precisión. –
• Entrada Salida: para determinar las necesidades de Entrada/Salida del…

38 thoughts on “Microcontroladores

  1. Hi there would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m having a difficult time deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.

    The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and
    I’m looking for something completely unique.
    P.S My apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

  2. Its such as you read my mind! You seem to know so much about this, like you wrote the e-book in it or something. I think that you simply could do with some p.c. to force the message house a bit, however instead of that, this is excellent blog. A fantastic read. I will certainly be back.

  3. Hey terrific website! Does running a blog like this require a
    massive amount work? I’ve virtually no expertise in programming however I was hoping to start my own blog soon.
    Anyways, should you have any ideas or techniques for new
    blog owners please share. I understand this is off topic but I simply needed to ask.
    Thanks!

  4. We’re a bunch of volunteers and opening a brand new
    scheme in our community. Your website provided us with helpful info to work on. You
    have performed a formidable job and our entire community will probably be
    thankful to you.

  5. What i do not understood is in reality how you are not really much more smartly-liked than you may be right now.
    You are so intelligent. You know thus significantly in relation to this topic, produced me personally imagine it from a lot of various angles.
    Its like women and men aren’t involved except it’s something to accomplish with
    Girl gaga! Your own stuffs nice. Always care for it up!

  6. Excellent beat ! I wish to apprentice whilst you amend your website,
    how can i subscribe for a blog site? The account helped me a applicable deal.
    I have been tiny bit familiar of this your broadcast offered shiny clear concept

  7. I must express thanks to you just for bailing me out of this predicament. Just after looking out through the the web and obtaining tricks which were not productive, I figured my entire life was well over. Living minus the answers to the issues you have fixed all through your article is a serious case, as well as the kind which could have in a negative way affected my entire career if I hadn’t come across the blog. That natural talent and kindness in maneuvering every part was useful. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t encountered such a solution like this. I am able to at this moment relish my future. Thank you so much for the impressive and results-oriented help. I won’t hesitate to endorse the blog to anybody who wants and needs counselling about this area.

  8. An impressive share, I just given this onto a colleague who was doing just a little evaluation on this. And he in truth purchased me breakfast because I discovered it for him.. smile. So let me reword that: Thnx for the deal with! But yeah Thnkx for spending the time to discuss this, I really feel strongly about it and love reading extra on this topic. If attainable, as you change into experience, would you mind updating your weblog with more particulars? It’s extremely helpful for me. Huge thumb up for this blog post!

  9. Thank you for another fantastic post. Where else could anyone get that kind of information in such an ideal way of writing? I’ve a presentation next week, and I’m on the look for such information.

  10. Hi there! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with Search Engine Optimization? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good success. If you know of any please share. Appreciate it!

  11. Undeniably believe that that you said. Your favourite justification appeared to be at the net the easiest factor to be mindful of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed whilst folks consider issues that they plainly do not recognize about. You controlled to hit the nail upon the highest and also defined out the entire thing with no need side-effects , other folks can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thank you

  12. Whats up very cool web site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Wonderful .. I will bookmark your website and take the feeds additionallyKI am satisfied to find so many useful information here in the publish, we’d like work out more techniques on this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  13. I like what you guys are up too. Such intelligent work and reporting! Carry on the superb works guys I?¦ve incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my website 🙂

  14. I like what you guys are up also. Such clever work and reporting! Carry on the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my site 🙂

  15. Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I??ve came across. It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier.

  16. Hello would you mind letting me know which webhost you’re using?
    I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different web browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most.
    Can you recommend a good hosting provider at a honest price?
    Many thanks, I appreciate it!

  17. hi!,I like your writing very a lot! proportion we keep in touch extra approximately your post on AOL? I need a specialist on this house to unravel my problem. Maybe that’s you! Looking forward to peer you.

Deja un comentario

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada.