Modelo portuario colombiano

ANTECEDENTES

El organismo oficial competente en materia portuaria, desde el año 1959 hasta 1990, fue la empresa Puertos de Colombia, COLPUERTOS. Era una empresa del Estado, adscrita al Ministeriode Obras Públicas, y administraba, en forma de monopolio, los siete puertos principales del país, incluido el puerto fluvial de Leticia en el Amazonas.

Como modelo estatal absoluto, era elencargado de planear el desarrollo, regular, administrar, vigilar y controlar el sector y prestar servicios.

El resultado obtenido fue un monopolio oficial, malas administraciones, corrupción,ineficiencia, sobrecostos en tarifas, equipos insuficientes e inadecuados, sindicatos con poder extralimitado, alto coste del personal y de las pensiones de estos, que eran absorbidas con cargo a la empresa, ypérdida de carga.

Esto trajo las siguientes consecuencias: fracaso del modelo estatal, liquidación (cambio de esquema) y reestructuración del sistema portuario, tanto conceptual comoprocedimentalmente.

A partir de aquí, se hace necesaria una reestructuración del sistema portuario. El Gobierno decide incorporar un amplio programa de reformas del sector público y efectuar un cambio substancialen el aparato económico, dentro del cual se incluyeron los puertos.

En el marco conceptual se replantea la función del Estado y se da participación al sector privado.

Con esta nueva filosofía, lecorresponde al Estado planear, regular, controlar y vigilar; y a los particulares: administrar, construir, prestar y explotar el servicio.

Los resultados obtenidos han sido la eliminación delmonopolio oficial, la privatización del servicio, la libre competencia, puertos de servicio público y privado y la eficiencia en el servicio.

En el marco procedimental se promulga la Ley 01 de Enero de1991 (Estatuto de Puertos Marítimos).

Los principios rectores de la actividad portuaria son: planificación racionalización a cargo de las autoridades, servicio de interés público, libre…

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