Los fluidos, como todos los materiales, tienen propiedades físicas que permiten caracterizar y cuantificar su comportamiento así como distinguirlos de otros. Algunas de estas propiedades son exclusivas de los fluidos y otras son típicas de todas las sustancias. Características como la viscosidad,tensión superficial y presión de vapor solo se pueden definir en los líquidos y gasas. Sin embargo la masa específica, el peso específico y la densidad son atributos de cualquier materia.
La densidad se define como la cantidad de masa por unidad de volumen de una sustancia, ?= m/V, donde V es el volumen de la sustancia que tiene masa m; l a densidad absoluta de un fluido depende de la temperaturay de la presión lo que tiene que ver con el lugar donde esta sea determinada.La densidad de un líquido se mide con un instrumento llamado densímetro o hidrómetro.Normalmente, está hecho de vidrio y consiste en un cilindro hueco con un bulbo pesado en su extremo para que pueda flotar en posición vertical..Su funcionamiento se basa en el principio de Arquímedes; el densímetro se hundirá más en ellíquido de menor densidad y desalojará más líquido, este principio afirma que todo cuerpo sumergido en un fluido experimenta una fuerza hacia arriba igual al peso del volumen de fluido desplazado por dicho cuerpo. Esto explica por qué flota un barco muy cargado; el peso del agua desplazada por el barco equivale a la fuerza hacia arriba que mantiene el barco a flote.
Otra propiedad, La gravedadespecifica que se puede definir de dos maneras:
1. Como la razón de la densidad de una sustanci a la densidad del agua a 40C.
2. Se define también como la razón del peso especifico de una sustancia al peso especifico del agua. La definición matematica de gravedad especifica es:
sg=?fluido?agua = ?fluido?agua
sg=?9.81kN/m3=?1000kgm3 O bien=?62.4lb/pies3=?1.94slugspies3

Esta definición secumple sin que importe la temperatura a que se determina la gravedad especifica.sin embargo, las propiedades de los fluidos varian con la temperatura. Esto quiere decir que la densidad y por tanto el peso especifico y la gravedad especifica deisminuye con el aumento de la temperatura.
El peso especifico es la cantidad de peso por unidad de volumen de una sustancia, ??w/V, donde V es el volumen deuna sustancia que tiene peso w.
Es muy frecuente que el peso de una sustancia deba encontrarse cuando se conoce su densidad, y viveversa, la conversión de uno a otra se lleva a cabo por medio de la ecuación :?=?g; donde g es la aceleración de la gravedad. Esta ecuación se justifica al tomar en cuenta las definiciones de densidad y gravedad especifica, y por medio de la cual se relaciónapeso,w=mg. La definición de peso especifico es ?=w/V, Si se multiplica el numerador y el denominador por g, se obtiene=?=wgVg; pero m=wg, por tanto ?=mgV , como ?=mV resulta ?=pg.
Estas propiedades permiten analizar el comportamiento de los fluidos, y podemos relacionarlas entre si,, el densímetro es de mucha ayuda puesto que permite utilizando el determinar la densidad relativa de los líquidos sinnecesidad de calcular antes su masa y volumen; a partir de ella sabemos la relación que existe entre el volumen y el peso de la sustancia útil en aspectos de embalaje, transporte, almacenamiento de dicha sustancia.;
nos permite medir la ligereza o pesadez de una sustancia recibe el nombre de densidad. Cuanto mayor sea la densidad de un cuerpo, más pesado nos parecerá.
Sin embargo la masa específica,el peso específico y la densidad son atributos de cualquier materia.
La facilidad con que un liquido se derrama es una indicación de su viscosidad; El aceite frio tiene una alta viscosidad y se derrama muy lentamente, mientras que el agua tiene una viscosidad relativamente baja y se derrama con bastante facilidad.
La viscosidad se define como la propiedad de un fluido que ofrece resitencia al…

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