Parlamentarismo

INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES SENADO DE LA REPÚBLICA

LEGISLATIVAS

DEL

PARLAMENTARISMO Y PRESIDENCIALISMO
(ESTUDIO COMPARADO)

PARLAMENTARISMO Y PRESIDENCIALISMO
ESTUDIO COMPARADO
INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES LEGISLATIVAS DEL SENADO DE LA REPUBLICA (IILSEN)

PARLAMENTARISMO Y PRESIDENCIALISMO ESTUDIO COMPARADO

INDICE

INTRODUCCION…………………………………………………………………………………………………… pág. 1

1. MARCO CONCEPTUAL……………………………………………………..…………pág. 3 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. Estado Gobierno Parlamentarismo Presidencialismo

2. EL SISTEMA PARLAMENTARIO..…………………………………..………………..pág. 7 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. Antecedentes Evolución Características Tipologías Sistematización de las diversas formas del régimenparlamentario

3. EL SISTEMA PRESIDENCIAL……………………………………………………….pág. 22 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. Antecedentes Características Características del Sistema Presidencial en América Latina Tipologías

4. SINTESIS COMPARATIVA…………………………………………………………..pág. 33 4.1. Síntesis Comparativa (Presidencialismo – Parlamentarismo) 4.2. Características del Sistema Semipresidencial

5. CONSIDERACIONESFINALES………………………………………………………pág. 47

6. ANEXOS………………………………………………………………………….…….pág. 53
ANEXO 1 Análisis Comparativo de las Constituciones de México (1824 –1917). ANEXO 2 Resumen del Comparativo de las Constituciones de México (1824-1917). ANEXO 3 Análisis Comparativo de las Constituciones de los Regímenes Presidenciales en América Latina.
ANEXO 4 Resumen del Comparativo de las Constituciones de los Regímenes Presidenciales en América Latina.BIBLIOGRAFIA…………………………………………………………….……………pág. 129

INTRODUCCION

En la actualidad se ha abierto el debate sobre diversos temas político-constitucionales en algunos sectores de la sociedad mexicana. Sin lugar a dudas, uno de los temas que genera enfoques y posiciones divergentes es el que se refiere al sistema de gobierno. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo fundamental de aportar elementos teóricossobre los sistemas de gobierno parlamentario y presidencial que permitan a los legisladores abundar en el conocimiento de las características de estos sistemas de gobierno, así como determinar las coincidencias y diferencias entre ambos. En el Capítulo I, denominado Marco Conceptual, se definen los términos relacionados con el tema de estudio y que, al mismo tiempo, son utilizados frecuentemente enel desarrollo del documento. Entre los conceptos desarrollados se encuentran las definiciones de Estado, Gobierno, División de Poderes, Parlamentarismo y Presidencialismo. En el capítulo siguiente se analiza el sistema parlamentario considerando los antecedentes de esta forma de gobierno, así como su evolución histórica; asimismo, se abunda en las características del parlamentarismo utilizandolos postulados de teóricos y juristas destacados, para, posteriormente, determinar y comparar las coincidencias o divergencias entre el parlamentarismo y presidencialismo. Por último, se establece una breve descripción de los diferentes tipos del sistema parlamentario de acuerdo al sistema de partidos que predomina en los países que adoptan esta forma de gobierno. El Capítulo III está dedicado alsistema presidencialista, sus antecedentes, características (con énfasis en la diversidad de criterios emitidos por avezados estudiosos del tema sobre los rasgos específicos del presidencialismo), así como las diversas formas que este sistema ha adquirido en los países latinoamericanos. En este capítulo también se presenta una breve descripción de los diferentes tipos de presidencialismo tomandocomo base la clasificación realizada por Karl Lowenstein, quién ubica a México dentro de los países en los que existe un presidencialismo de tipo puro. Una vez determinadas las peculiaridades del parlamentarismo y del presidencialismo el estudio contempla una síntesis comparativa entre ambos sistemas de gobierno con la finalidad de determinar las diferencias…

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