Plan de finanzas


Las proyecciones financieras de una empresa, son la base para evaluar conveniente o adecuadamente la idea del proyecto. ? Toda empresa necesita lascifras esenciales sobre la situación financiera, incluidas las pérdidas o ganancias, la evolución del flujo de caja y la magnitud de los futuros requisitos de capital. ? El Plan de finanzas debecontener información sobre la futura evolución financiera de la empresa, así como un esbozo de un plan financiero de apoyo.

El Plan de finanzas tendrá que ofreceruna respuesta a las siguientes preguntas:

¿Cuánto dinero necesitará la compañía en cada período? Una vez que hayamos establecido nuestra empresa ¿cuántos beneficios podremos obtener?


?¿Cuáles son las principales hipótesis en las que se basan nuestros pronósticos?




El objetivo de una proyección financiera no es hacer que los números salgan bien, sinoevaluar con sinceridad, si es conveniente o no, entrar en ese negocio. Al hacer proyecciones financieras, deberá establecerse un horizonte de tiempo para realizar los cálculos. Anteriormente, lasproyecciones se hacían a 10 años; sin embargo, últimamente se considera que hacer estimados por encima de 5 años, podría resultar peligroso. Para el primer año deberá hacerse una proyección mensual, con elpropósito de comparar lo real con lo proyectado.

Los cálculos del flujo de caja, estados de cuentas y balance de situación. ? Los pronósticospara los próximos tres o cinco años, y al menos un año tras el punto de equilibrio.


Fondos ajenos ? Préstamos familiares (préstamos deamigos y parientes, generalmente en condiciones muy favorables). ? Apoyo estatal, p.ej. investigación, programas de creación de empleo o de estimulación del sector. ? Hipotecas. ? Arrendamiento…

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