Unidad I

Tema 1.

Peculiaridad de la psicología en el campo del conocimiento, con respecto a otras disciplinas científicas

La psicología como ciencia no es una imposición, ni una alternativa, ni una disyuntiva entre varias formas de saber, sencillamente porque ciencia sólo es una; la psicología como ciencia es evidente y lógica, es efectiva y contundente, es coherente y progresiva.

Lapsicología es considerada un ciencia puente; pues esta entre las ciencias sociales y también entre las ciencias naturales, seria bueno tener presente que la psicología estudia e integra factores biológico-psíquicos-sociales; por ello la psicología esta involucrada en todo lo que hacemos y estudiamos. También es importante que la psicología se apoya en las ciencias llamadas «exactas», lo queincluye las pruebas psicológicas y estas son parte importante para que la psicología sea considerada ciencia. A continuación una breve relación de la psicología con algunas disciplinas científicas.

? PSIQUIATRIA: Es una rama especializada de la medicina, la cual se relaciona con la PSICOLOGIA CLINICA.

? PSICOANALISIS: es una opción psicoterapéutica de los trastornos emocionales, serelaciona con LA PSICOLOGIA CLINICA.

? BIOLOGIA: y su relación con la FISIOLOGIA informa de la anatomía y funcionalidad del sistema nervios; con la GENETICA se aprende de los procesos hereditarios que sirven de base a la conducta y con la ECOLOGIA comprenderemos la relación naturaleza-hombre, las cuales influyen en la PSICOLOGIA EXPERIMENTAL, PSICOLOGIA COMPARADA, Y PSICOLOGIA CLINICA.

?FISICA: es con esta ciencia que la psicología ingreso al campo científico con los estudios sensoriales de la PSICOFISICA.

? QUIMICA: con la bioquímica se ha podido estudiar los fundamentos bioquímicos del sistema nervioso.

? SOCIOLOGIA: estudia la conducta de los grupos, la cual se relaciona con la PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL Y LA PSICOLOGIA COMUNITARIA.

? ANTROPOLOGIA: ayuda a lasculturas a superar el etnocentrismo[1].


? HISTORIA: tata de clasificar el desarrollo del hombre en el tiempo.

? MATEMATICA Y ESTADISTICA: se hace necesario para los test psicológicos.


Tema 2

Antecedentes históricos de la psicología

El conocimiento psicológico en los indicios del hombre y en la antigüedad.

El renacimiento fue la era de Nicolás Maquiavelo y William Shakespeare, en esta época se publicaron, libros de varias áreas del conocimiento incluyendo lapsicología. El renacimiento fue unas era de exploración descubrimientos del arte, el cosmos, por grandes personajes como Da Vinci, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Descartes etcétera. En el campo de la psicología aparecen los primeros empiristas como Thomas Hobbs, John KLocke, Geroge Berkeley, haciendo hincapié en los efectos de la experiencia sobre una mente pasiva. El papel de la mente activa en laformación de asociaciones fue considerada por David Hume, David Hartley y James y John Stuart Mill.

El conocimiento psicológico durante la edad media y moderna.

Edad Media

Según San Agustín (siglo V) para conocerse, el hombre debe mirar hacia dentro, no al exterior. En su interior descubrirá la verdad, la huella de Dios en él.

Conocer es una facultad propia del alma. Distingue entredos tipos de conocimiento:

a) Conocimiento sensitivo: los objetos materiales actúan sobre nuestro cuerpo, impresionando los sentidos externos, en los que está presente el alma.

b) Conocimiento intelectivo (o racional): se ocupa de las verdades y razones eternas. Su fin es la contemplación que llega hasta el conocimiento de Dios.

En opinión de Santo Tomás de Aquino (siglo XIII), el…

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