Psicologia diferencial

1. Desarrollo Histórico de la Psicología Diferencial. Aunque la constitución de la Psicología Diferencial (PD) como ciencia empírica, data desde finales del siglo XIX, muchos conocimientos que le son propios estaban planteados desde antes.

La PD en cuanto ciencia, se ha construido de forma acumulativa y comparativa.

Se reconocen 2 grandes períodos: el pre-científico y el científico. El cambiode un período a otro se dio por las aportaciones de Galton, Binet, Stern, Spearman y Cattell.

El período pre-científico se caracteriza por el conjunto de saberes y creencias que han ido formulándose para explicar la variabilidad de los individuos y su comportamiento (objeto de estudio de la PD). Las explicaciones que se proponían se formulaban con base a sistemas de creencias y saberes.

Elperíodo pre-científico (Antecedentes) se inicia en el siglo IV a. C. y llega hasta 1850.

El período científico, que empieza desde mediados del siglo XIX hasta el presente, se divide en 4 etapas:

1° (1850-1910): surgimiento y definición de la nueva disciplina,

2° (1910-1950): desarrollo y configuración de la PD (Destaca el trabajo de C. Burt, L. L. Thurstone, P. E. Vernon y R. C. Tryon.),

3°(1950-1970): diversificación de la investigación relacionada con las diferencias individuales (Ocurren 2 cosas: a. Áreas que habían sido parte de la PD, como la Psicometría o la Teoría de los tests, se convierten en disciplinas autónomas, y b. El análisis factorial, eje metodológico de la PD, sufrirá críticas que invalidarán, temporalmente, el enfoque correlacional/factorialista; por otro lado, es unaetapa muy productiva en estudios empíricos e investigaciones diferencialistas: se publican por primera vez, manuales como los de A. Anastasi y L. Tyler. Además, se destacan autores como R. B. Cattell, H. J. Eysenck y J. P. Guilford.), y

4° (1970-presente): nuevo auge de la PD (con autores como R. J. Sternberg, M. Zuckerman y A. R. Jensen.)

2. Antecedentes de la Psicología Diferencial (PD).Hasta antes del Renacimiento, se asociaba habitualmente el problema de la comprensión de la naturaleza humana con el de las diferencias individuales. Las concepciones teológico/naturalistas de los filósofos y médicos griegos acerca de la naturaleza del hombre eran las mismas que servían para explicar las diferencias entre los individuos (ejemplo: la división aristotélica de las facultades del alma.)Así, las diferencias individuales eran algo consustancial a la naturaleza humana, diferencias prefijadas en la propia constitución corporal del individuo.

Ya en el Renacimiento, el hombre es tratado de una forma más real y existencial y no únicamente de forma trascendente. Interesaba conocer su existencia cotidiana y sus aspiraciones reales.

En la Ilustración, se consolida una visión del hombredualista y se afianza un análisis biológico-naturalista del mismo, aunque se sigue creyendo en la naturaleza espiritual de la mente humana.

Con la llegada del Romanticismo, se acabará por descartar la visión teológica del hombre y de su comportamiento. Y para el siglo XIX cristalizará el estudio de las diferencias individuales en el marco de las ciencias.

En los siglos XVII XVIII, se dieronmuchos cambios en varias disciplinas que aportarían elementos valiosos para la PD, tal es el caso de la Historia natural, la Medicina, la Fisiología y la Estadística.

En el siglo XIX, las ciencias naturales y sociales se especializan casi mostrando ya su aspecto moderno. En la Medicina, la Psiquiatría alemana y francesa, influenciadas por la Psicopatología y la Psicología clínica, conceptualizarán laenfermedad mental como un estado cuantitativamente diferente a la normalidad. En la Antropología, la Antropometría (dedicada al estudio de las variaciones humanas en el plano físico) abordará la problemática de la monogenia (Doctrina que sostiene que todas las razas humanas descienden de un tipo primitivo único), la poligenia (Doctrina que admite variedad de orígenes en la especie humana) y la…

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