Relaciones internacionales

Tema 2. Algunos conceptos básicos para comprender las RR.II.

1. Elementos estructurales de la Sociedad Internacional.

b) La realidad de los pueblos en la Sociedad Internacional.

En ocasiones los individuos son perseguidos por su pertenencia a un pueblo determinado. Los pueblos, al igual que el individuo, son bastante poco en la esfera internacional. En el plano teórico-ideológico,la culpa la tiene el filósofo alemán Friedrich HEGEL, difusor de una especie de superstición consistente en imaginar que todo pueblo debe, necesariamente, consagrar históricamente su existencia política y jurídica plena en forma de Estado y, además, debe contar con una ‘Historia’.

Al pueblo como comunidad consanguínea o de un parentesco ancestral, los griegos lo llamaron ethnos, de ahí elcalificativo actual de “étnico” que se da a tantas adscripciones y situaciones grupales. Otras denominaciones, como demos, implican un componente político y constitucional.

De Roma provienes los términos gens, natio, civitas, y populus, todos sinónimos de pueblo.

? Gens: Tiene la particularidad de ser el patronímico del Derecho de Gentes que fue la primitiva denominación del DerechoInternacional. En español utilizamos ‘gente’ para referirnos a multitudes indiferenciadas de personas, pero en Roma, la gens describía a una comunidad de parentesco, ligada por un origen étnico –lengua, costumbres, historia— común y marcada por un sentimiento de pertenencia ancestral. Los vínculos son profundos. A ella no se pertenece por un acto de voluntad, sino por el propio hecho de nacer en ella.

?Natio: Describe la comunidad territorial vinculada a una descendencia común. Si en la gens la comunidad de descendencia viene dada por el origen, en la natio lo está por el territorio: designa a los nacidos en un mismo territorio. Prima el concepto geográfico sobre el étnico.

? Civitas: Designa el conjunto de derechos, deberes, instituciones, que unen al populus; se trata de un ordenamientoobjetivo que puede otorgarse a otras personas o grupos. Está formada por un grupo de ciudadanos o cives que en la civitas organizan una comunidad política propia y diferenciada. Este significado se concreta en la ciudadanía. Se identifica con un territorio; de ahí proviene el modelo básico de organización política en Roma, la ciudad-estado. Roma llamó civitates a los pueblos organizadospolíticamente de alguna manera.

? Populus: Describe a los miembros de un grupo ligado por leyes e instituciones propias, definidas por la civitas, que es la comunidad que les confiere sus derechos y obligaciones y sus lazos de pertenencia sobre una base política. Una gens puede comprender a varias civitates, constituyendo diferentes populi. A su vez, la civitas de Roma estaba constituida por diferentesgentes unidas entre sí por los lazos políticos que permitieron consolidad el populus romano.

En la actualidad existen numerosos pueblos que son encuadrables en cualquiera de esos tipos o en los cuatro a la vez, sin que tenga que existir un conflicto político por principio. Fue la superstición nacionalista la que estableció que cada pueblo debía constituirse en nación y ésta en Estado, a serposible, monolítico, homogéneo y estrictamente unitario. Los pueblos encuadrados en el perímetro de semejantes Estados y cuyas características, no ya sólo étnicas, sino consuetudinarias, históricas, culturales o religiosas, no coincidieran con el proyecto nacional-estatal hegemónico, estaría condenados a desaparecer, ya en forma de asimilación, ya en forma de expulsión o incluso de exterminio.También existe pueblos que conviven encuadrados en Estados diversos, repartidos a menudo a uno y a otro lado de fronteras políticas y territoriales, que no traducen su evolución histórica no sus tradiciones culturales y que ostentan un cierto reconocimiento limitado que sanciona su existencia y, en algunos casos, sus derechos. Su situación es bastante parecida a la de los individuos: existen pero…

383 thoughts on “Relaciones internacionales

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