Tatuaje carcelario


La palabra tatuaje derivade la voz tahitiana Tatau=marca o señal, asi como del frances Tatouage= acciòn y efecto de tatuar o tatuarse.
Dentro de las actividades producidas por el mencionado proceso de “prisionalizaciòn” que presentan los reclusos podemos considerar la realización de tatuajes en su cuerpo.

En las cárceles, la práctica del tatuaje pone al descubierto unsubmundo de significados ocultos. Los presos fueron uno de los primeros grupos que usaron los tatuajes para diferenciarse del resto de la sociedad, ya sea como señal de rebeldía o como símbolo de pactos entre logias carcelarias. Son considerados como conductas de identificación y autodestrucción.

Los internos los denominan «tumberos», y en general traduce un contenido psíquico importante, y sumamentesignificativo. Es un simbolismo que expresa los obscuros caminos del subconsciente y cuyo lenguaje, alternado en la vida habitual con las actividades de un Yo conocido, traduce los caprichos de conductas inexplicables, cobijándose el secreto de los signos trazados en la piel como un recuerdo de sensaciones pasadas.
El tatuaje es un lenguaje reprimido que busca libertad a través de la expresióndérmica.

Asimismo el tatuaje forma parte de la subcultura delincuencial y denota una individualización peculiar o especie de narcisismo de estos individuos, portándolo con orgullo como un adorno personal distintivo. Aunque también se encuentran los llamados “Pseudo tatuajes” que son los realizados con quemaduras y muestran aguante, fortaleza”.

El tatuaje puede expresar:
* La búsqueda de unarelación permanente con los objetos que no posee el individuo, como la madre, el afecto de los familiares, etc., y a la vez una autoafirmación de su personalidad, es decir, es una forma de sentirse vinculado con los afectos o las persona queridas.
* El temor a la pérdida y al robo de sus seres queridos.
* El sentimiento de permanencia a un grupo social determinado.
* La búsqueda de supropia identidad y su necesidad de identificación.
* Una forma de comunicación de sus propios conflictos, a través de un lenguaje simbólico.
* Un sentimiento de autocastigo.
* Complejas formas de rebeldía y sufrimiento.

Los tatuajes, al igual que las huellas dactilares, los lunares, y otras marcas distintivas corporales son indicios inestimables para la identificación de una persona.

En elestudio y análisis de los tatuajes se deben describir los siguientes aspectos:

1. Su localización:
Los sitios en que habitualmente los hombres se acostumbran hacer el tatuaje, en sucesión de frecuencia, son los miembros superiores, el pecho, la espalda y los genitales externos. En cambio en la mujer los tatuajes son mas pequeños y la mayor parte de ellos se ubican en lugares ocultos, como sonlos senos, el abdomen, la cicatriz umbilical y los glúteos.

2. El numero de colorantes empleados: se puede realizar a una, dos, o mas tintas. Los colores mas empleados son el azul, el negro, el verde y el rojo.
3. El lugar de su realización: si fueron realizados dentro (intramural) o fuera (extramural) de un penal. La mayoría son hechos intramuros, lo que indica que el tatuaje esta enestrecha relación con una angustiosa situación de aislamiento social.
El rol del tatuado carcelario adquiere un significado especial: la necesidad de que otro sujeto lo marque, le cause dolor, lo que conlleva a una relación sadomasoquista.
Otros sujetos se tatúan ellos mismos, lo que implica una conducta de autocastigo.
4. Si actualmente los acepta o los rechaza la persona.
5. Su representación osimbolismo:
De acurdo al mensaje expresado los tatuajes pueden ser:
* Nombres propios: generalmente de mujeres (en el caso de los hombres) o viceversa, de los familiares cercanos, de lugares, de bandas u organizaciones a las que se pertenece o admira. Frases afectivas (te amo, recurdo de mi madre, etc.).
* Siglas y fechas: con las iníciales de nombres (del propio sujeto o de personas…

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