Tendencias y perspectivas del desarrollo de la psicología de la salud en américa latina

TENDENCIAS Y PERSPECTIVAS DEL DESARROLLO DE LA PSICOLOGÍA DE LA SALUD EN AMÉRICA LATINA

1- RESUMEN GENERAL DEL TEMA
En el último año del milenio se hace más patente que la Psicología puede jugar un importante papel en el desarrollo de un nuevo enfoque para proveer salud.
La psicología de la Salud ha nacido como consecuencia de la necesidad de comprender globalmente las contribuciones de losfactores psicosociales en el proceso salud-enfermedad; algunas de las vertientes de la Psicología en la salud son: La Psicología Clínica, Psicología Medica, Medicina Psicosomática, Psicología Social Comunitaria Y la Medicina Conductual.
La psicología de la salud en Latinoamérica aun tiene una insuficiente incorporación de estos profesionales al sector salud, un amplio espectro temático, unalimitada formación de postgrado y un déficit de investigaciones con metodologías que logren generalizaciones y rápida introducción a la practica en la solución de los problemas de salud.
La Psicología de la Salud nació en Latinoamérica en Cuba por los años 60, de hecho existía la Sociedad Cubana de Psicología de la Salud, luego comenzó a crecer especialmente en países como Colombia, México, Venezuela yBrasil. Hay puntos divergentes entre países latinoamericanos como ausencia de un marco teórico común, baja proporción de investigación básica, etc.
A la altura del siglo que comienza se resalta más la necesidad de una formación integral en el campo multiaxial de la Psicología de la Salud. Hay grandes contingentes de psicólogos que constituyen una fuerza potencial para mejorar los cuadros de saludde sus países, nuevos temas de trabajo se incorporan a los ya tradicionales y psicólogos de hoy van adquiriendo cada día mas consciencia de su responsabilidad profesional en salud; en relación con la salud y la enfermedad mental, el trabajo tradicional interdisciplinario tiende a enriquecerse con nuevas técnicas y tratamientos, la neuropsicología ampliara sus horizontes y proporcionara nuevoselementos de rehabilitación. Se desarrolla y alcanza cada vez mas auge el estudio del modo de vida y los estilos de vida personales que se relacionan con el surgimiento y curso de las enfermedades crónicas, al mismo tiempo continua el trabajo de identificación de las influencias de estas enfermedades sobre el psiquismo. A ritmo creciente se intensifica el estudio del estrés emocional como patrón deriesgo o vulnerabilidad para enfermar, crecen los estudios sobre “resistencia personal” y “sentido de coherencia”. También crecen los estudios dirigidos a esclarecer el papel del distres en la susceptibilidad a las infecciones y los procesos inmunoalérgicos.
Cada día adquirirá mayor importancia la participación de la psicología en la solución de los problemas del proceso reproductivo y la saludmaterno-infantil; se trabaja ampliamente en la búsqueda y puesta en práctica de métodos y técnicas de influencia psicosocial que promuevan una mayor motivación por el cuidado de su salud, el establecimiento de conductas personales de prevención y auto examen, etc. Continuara la búsqueda y aplicación de los mejores procedimientos para motivar y capacitar al personal de salud en la comprensión de losfactores psicosociales que intervienen en el proceso salud-enfermedad y en la utilización de métodos psicológicos tanto en el trabajo de promoción y prevención, como en la atención a los enfermos; se extiende progresivamente el uso de tecnologías para la formación y el adiestramiento del personal de los quipos de salud en la actividad practica, mediante la modelación de situaciones interactivas parala realización de entrevistas y discusiones en pequeños grupos.
La incorporación en investigaciones de servicios de salud y el despliegue de una gran variedad de tareas en la caracterización y modificación del clima de instituciones de salud, son líneas vigentes de trabajo en esta dirección; la investigación y la atención psicológica a la población de la tercera edad. Con frecuencia creciente…

47 thoughts on “Tendencias y perspectivas del desarrollo de la psicología de la salud en américa latina

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