Teorias cognitivas de la motivacion

Vélaz Rivas, J.I. (1996). La motivación y los motivos. En J.L. Vélaz Rivas (Ed.) Motivos y motivación en la empresa. Madrid, España: Días de Santos. Pp. 19-46.

TEORÍAS COGNITIVAS DE LA MOTIVACIÓN

TEORÍA DEL APRENDIZAJE SOCIAL

Los mapas cognitivos de Tolman

Edward Tolman en 1932, manifestó su intuición de que la conducta depende de procesos cognitivos y tiene carácter intencional, esdecir, está dotada de una orientación finalista que se mantiene hasta alcanzar la meta pretendida, El aprendizaje no puede explicarse como un mero cambio de conducta “mapas cognitivos” que constan de medios y rutas elaboradas por ellos para alcanzar un objetivo. La aportación de Tolman se puede concretar en dos postulados: 1°) El objeto de la investigación de la Psicología ha de ser la acción consentido, conocida como conducta “molar”, y no solo y no solo las respuestas a estímulos ambientales. La conducta molar es intencional, se propone metas, por lo que depende de procesos cognoscitivos. 2°) El análisis del comportamiento no puede limitarse a las variables observables, ya que no todas las respuestas y estímulos de la conducta son observables. Tolman sugiere intercalar otras variablesintervinientes; los determinantes inmediatos de la conducta molar son el espacio vital, el sistema de necesidades del individuo y su matriz de valores y creencias.

El campo de fuerzas de Lewin

Kurt Lewin, concibe la fuerza motivacional de la conducta como una función de la tensión creada por una necesidad junto con las metas que pueden satisfacer dicha tensión. En el modelo del “campo defuerzas” dice que cada necesidad crea su propia tensión motivacional y existe una meta correctiva capaz de satisfacer esa necesidad y reducir la tensión. Las formulas del campo de fuerzas de Lewin son las siguientes:

1) C=f(V) (4) P=f(t)

2) V=f(P+E) (3) C=f(P+E) (5) E=f(M)

Donde: C= conducta, V= espacio vital, P=persona, E=entorno psicológico, t= tensión, M= metas, F=fuerza dela conducta, d= distancia psicológica.

Teoría del valor-expectativa de Atkinson

Atkinson considera que en el sujeto existen algunas características relativamente estables que configuran su personalidad, a las que llama “motivos”. Sostiene que la tendencia a ocuparse de una actividad concreta proporcional a la fuerza de una expectativa de carácter cognitivo, la fuerza de la expectativa ha deestar complementada por el valor que se otorga a ese resultado, esta tendencia estará influida por recompensas externas y por motivos intrínsecos. La tendencia está determinada por tres factores: el motivo de logro (Ms), la probabilidad de éxito (Ps), y el valor del incentivo (Is), esto forma la formula Ts=(Ms x Ps x Is)

Teoría del Aprendizaje Social de Bandura

Albert Bandura sostiene queexiste una casualidad tríadica recíproca entre la conducta, los factores personales y cognitivos y el entorno. Estos tres elementos influyen unos a otros en una relación bidireccional. Considera que hay tres aspectos del aprendizaje social que resultan especialmente relevantes en el campo empresarial: 1) el desarrollo de las habilidades cognitivas, sociales y conductuales de las personas entre de unmodelo general; 2) el fenómeno de la confianza de los individuos en sus propias capacidades; 3) aumentar la motivación de los miembros de la organización a través de un sistema de metas.

La orientación al rendimiento en Dweck y Nicholls

Dweck ha estudiado las repercusiones de los éxitos y fracasos en las atribuciones que la gente realiza sobre su propia competencia, ha llegado a laconclusión de que:

a) Los individuos que están orientados a metas de aprendizaje, buscan adquirir nuevos conocimientos y habilidades técnicas, no se asustan ante las dificultades, no se hunden tras los fracasos y confían en su esfuerzo.

b) Los individuos que están orientados a metas de rendimiento buscan obtener juicios favorables sobre su competencia, tienden a atribuir el éxito y el…

52 thoughts on “Teorias cognitivas de la motivacion

  1. Another thing I’ve noticed is that for many people, bad credit is the reaction of circumstances beyond their control. As an example they may are already saddled having an illness so that they have more bills for collections. It would be due to a job loss or even the inability to work. Sometimes separation and divorce can truly send the budget in an opposite direction. Many thanks for sharing your notions on this website.

  2. Hello, you used to write magnificent posts, but the last several posts have been kinda boring… I miss your tremendous articles. Past several posts are just a bit out of track!

  3. I have realized that over the course of making a relationship with real estate proprietors, you’ll be able to get them to understand that, in each and every real estate transaction, a commission is paid. In the long run, FSBO sellers don’t «save» the payment. Rather, they struggle to win the commission by way of doing a good agent’s job. In accomplishing this, they spend their money and time to conduct, as best they are able to, the jobs of an real estate agent. Those responsibilities include exposing the home through marketing, introducing the home to prospective buyers, creating a sense of buyer urgency in order to induce an offer, scheduling home inspections, controlling qualification investigations with the financial institution, supervising maintenance tasks, and assisting the closing.

  4. Hi, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam comments? If so how do you prevent it, any plugin or anything you can suggest? I get so much lately it’s driving me insane so any help is very much appreciated.

  5. Thanks , I have recently been searching for information about this subject for ages and yours is the best I’ve came upon till now. But, what in regards to the conclusion? Are you positive concerning the source?

  6. I have to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this site. I’m hoping to see the same high-grade content from you later on as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own site now 😉

  7. Today, I went to the beachfront with my kids. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said «You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.» She placed the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!

  8. Heya! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any problems with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing a few months of hard work due to no backup. Do you have any solutions to prevent hackers?

  9. Greetings from Carolina! I’m bored to death at work so I decided to browse your site on my iphone during lunch break. I enjoy the knowledge you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m shocked at how fast your blog loaded on my cell phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, great site!

  10. I’ve been surfing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be a lot more useful than ever before.

  11. hey there and thanks for your information – I have certainly picked up something new from proper here. I did however expertise a few technical points the use of this web site, since I experienced to reload the site many instances prior to I could get it to load properly. I were puzzling over in case your web hosting is OK? No longer that I’m complaining, however slow loading cases instances will often have an effect on your placement in google and can harm your high-quality ranking if ads and ***********|advertising|advertising|advertising and *********** with Adwords. Well I’m adding this RSS to my email and can look out for a lot more of your respective fascinating content. Ensure that you replace this once more soon..

  12. Thanks for your publiction. Another point is that being photographer will involve not only problems in taking award-winning photographs but additionally hardships in acquiring the best dslr camera suited to your requirements and most especially situations in maintaining the standard of your camera. This is certainly very genuine and apparent for those photography fans that are in capturing this nature’s fascinating scenes – the mountains, the actual forests, the actual wild or maybe the seas. Visiting these amazing places surely requires a digital camera that can meet the wild’s nasty settings.

  13. I like what you guys are doing. Such clever work and reporting! Carry on with the superb works guys. I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it’ll improve the value of my web site. 🙂

  14. Nice blog here! Additionally your site loads up fast! What host are you using? Can I am getting your associate link in your host? I wish my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  15. Very great post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted
    to say that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts.
    In any case I’ll be subscribing in your rss feed and I am hoping you write
    again very soon!

  16. Greetings, I do think your site could be having web browser compatibility
    issues. Whenever I take a look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine
    however, if opening in IE, it’s got some overlapping issues.
    I merely wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Other than that, wonderful blog!

  17. I really love your blog.. Excellent colors & theme. Did you build this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as I’m attempting to create my very own site and would like to know where you got this from or exactly what the theme is called. Many thanks!

  18. Hi there! Quick question that’s totally off topic.
    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?
    My website looks weird when browsing from my apple iphone.
    I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able to resolve this problem.

    If you have any suggestions, please share. Cheers!

  19. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you
    relied on the video to make your point. You obviously know what youre talking about, why throw away your intelligence
    on just posting videos to your blog when you could be giving us something informative to read?

  20. 535598 825772The when I just read a blog, Im hoping that this doesnt disappoint me approximately this 1. Get real, Yes, it was my method to read, but When i thought youd have something fascinating to state. All I hear is really a number of whining about something which you could fix need to you werent too busy trying to discover attention. 93607

  21. I just want to tell you that I am all new to blogging and certainly liked your web site. Very likely I’m want to bookmark your blog . You amazingly come with terrific writings. With thanks for sharing with us your website page.

Deja un comentario

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada.