Teorias cognitivas de la motivacion

Vélaz Rivas, J.I. (1996). La motivación y los motivos. En J.L. Vélaz Rivas (Ed.) Motivos y motivación en la empresa. Madrid, España: Días de Santos. Pp. 19-46.



Los mapas cognitivos de Tolman

Edward Tolman en 1932, manifestó su intuición de que la conducta depende de procesos cognitivos y tiene carácter intencional, esdecir, está dotada de una orientación finalista que se mantiene hasta alcanzar la meta pretendida, El aprendizaje no puede explicarse como un mero cambio de conducta “mapas cognitivos” que constan de medios y rutas elaboradas por ellos para alcanzar un objetivo. La aportación de Tolman se puede concretar en dos postulados: 1°) El objeto de la investigación de la Psicología ha de ser la acción consentido, conocida como conducta “molar”, y no solo y no solo las respuestas a estímulos ambientales. La conducta molar es intencional, se propone metas, por lo que depende de procesos cognoscitivos. 2°) El análisis del comportamiento no puede limitarse a las variables observables, ya que no todas las respuestas y estímulos de la conducta son observables. Tolman sugiere intercalar otras variablesintervinientes; los determinantes inmediatos de la conducta molar son el espacio vital, el sistema de necesidades del individuo y su matriz de valores y creencias.

El campo de fuerzas de Lewin

Kurt Lewin, concibe la fuerza motivacional de la conducta como una función de la tensión creada por una necesidad junto con las metas que pueden satisfacer dicha tensión. En el modelo del “campo defuerzas” dice que cada necesidad crea su propia tensión motivacional y existe una meta correctiva capaz de satisfacer esa necesidad y reducir la tensión. Las formulas del campo de fuerzas de Lewin son las siguientes:

1) C=f(V) (4) P=f(t)

2) V=f(P+E) (3) C=f(P+E) (5) E=f(M)

Donde: C= conducta, V= espacio vital, P=persona, E=entorno psicológico, t= tensión, M= metas, F=fuerza dela conducta, d= distancia psicológica.

Teoría del valor-expectativa de Atkinson

Atkinson considera que en el sujeto existen algunas características relativamente estables que configuran su personalidad, a las que llama “motivos”. Sostiene que la tendencia a ocuparse de una actividad concreta proporcional a la fuerza de una expectativa de carácter cognitivo, la fuerza de la expectativa ha deestar complementada por el valor que se otorga a ese resultado, esta tendencia estará influida por recompensas externas y por motivos intrínsecos. La tendencia está determinada por tres factores: el motivo de logro (Ms), la probabilidad de éxito (Ps), y el valor del incentivo (Is), esto forma la formula Ts=(Ms x Ps x Is)

Teoría del Aprendizaje Social de Bandura

Albert Bandura sostiene queexiste una casualidad tríadica recíproca entre la conducta, los factores personales y cognitivos y el entorno. Estos tres elementos influyen unos a otros en una relación bidireccional. Considera que hay tres aspectos del aprendizaje social que resultan especialmente relevantes en el campo empresarial: 1) el desarrollo de las habilidades cognitivas, sociales y conductuales de las personas entre de unmodelo general; 2) el fenómeno de la confianza de los individuos en sus propias capacidades; 3) aumentar la motivación de los miembros de la organización a través de un sistema de metas.

La orientación al rendimiento en Dweck y Nicholls

Dweck ha estudiado las repercusiones de los éxitos y fracasos en las atribuciones que la gente realiza sobre su propia competencia, ha llegado a laconclusión de que:

a) Los individuos que están orientados a metas de aprendizaje, buscan adquirir nuevos conocimientos y habilidades técnicas, no se asustan ante las dificultades, no se hunden tras los fracasos y confían en su esfuerzo.

b) Los individuos que están orientados a metas de rendimiento buscan obtener juicios favorables sobre su competencia, tienden a atribuir el éxito y el…

52 thoughts on “Teorias cognitivas de la motivacion

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