Terminos psicologia

1. Concepto de Psicología.
La Psicología es la ciencia que estudia la conducta y los procesos mentales. Trata
de describir y explicar todos los aspectos del pensamiento, de los sentimientos, de las
percepciones y de las acciones humanas. Por ser una ciencia, la Psicología se basa en el
método científico para encontrar respuestas.
Etimológicamente, Psicología o Psicología, proviene del griegopsique : alma y
logos: tratado, ciencia. Literalmente significaría ciencia del alma; sin embargo,
contemporáneamente se le conceptualiza a la Psicología como una parte de las Ciencias
Humanas o Sociales que estudia:
• El comportamiento de los organismos individuales en interacción con su ambiente.
• Los procesos mentales de los individuos.
• Los procesos de comunicación desde lo individuala lo microsocial.
La psicología es el estudio científico de la conducta y la experiencia de como los seres
humanos y los animales sienten, piensan, aprenden, y conocen para adaptarse al medio
que les rodea.
2. Historia de la Psicología.
La psicología empezó a ser reconocida como disciplina científica distinguible de
la filosofía o la fisiología a fines del siglo XIX, y tiene sus raíces enperiodos más antiguos
de la historia de la humanidad.
En el Papiro Ebers (aprox. 1550 adC) se encuentra una breve descripción de la
depresión clínica. El texto está lleno de encantamientos y recetas mágicas para alejar
demonios y otras supersticiones, y también se puede observar una larga tradición de
práctica empírica y observación de este tipo de problemas.
A pesar del origen griego de lapalabra Psicología, en la cultura helénica sólo existen
referencias a la psique (esto es, alma o espíritu), como una fuente de preocupación de
los filósofos post-socráticos (Platón y Aristóteles en particular) ante cuestionamientos
acerca de si el hombre, desde el nacimiento, contaba con ciertas conocimientos y
habilidades, o si esto lo adquiría con la experiencia. Los cuestionamientos tambiénse
relacionaban con la capacidad del hombre para conocer el mundo.
Estas interrogantes contaron con un gran número de aportaciones de la filosofía, que
intentaban explicar la naturaleza de la psique, sus aptitudes, y los contenidos
adquiridos. Hasta el siglo XVI no hubo planteamientos pre-científicos al
respecto. René Descartes afirmaba que el cuerpo funcionaba como una máquina
mecánicaperfecta, distinguiéndola del alma porque esta era independiente y única, con
algunas ideas innatas que serían determinantes para ordenar la experiencia que los
individuos tendrían del mundo. Thomas Hobbes y John Locke, de la tradición empírica
inglesa, le daban un lugar muy importante a la experiencia en el conocimiento humano,
destacando el papel de los sentidos para recoger información del mundofísico, de lo
cual se desprendía el concepto de verificación de las ideas correctas por contrastación
con la información sensorial.
En el siglo XVI la psicología aún era considerada algo así como parte de la teología,
pero la aparición de las disciplinas médicas impulsó la concepción de lo espiritual (lo
relacionado con el alma) en términos de funciones cerebrales. En este momento se
sitúanlas referencias de Thomas Willis a la Psicología en La doctrina del Alma, y su
tratado de anatomía de 1672 De Anima Brutorum (Dos discursos acerca del alma de
los brutos).
En el siglo XIX aparecieron los primeros intentos de adoptar métodos específicos para
ahondar en el conocimiento del comportamiento humano, que es lo que se entiende
como psicología científica, hecho que es asociado aWillhelm Wundt (1832-1920), un
profesor de medicina y fisiología de la Universidad de Leipzig fundó en Leipzig el primer
Instituto de Psicología en el mundo, y el primer laboratorio científico de psicología, en
1879. Este hecho es la fundación de la Psicología como ciencia formal.
Wundt y sus discípulos se concentraron en el estudio de los contenidos de la
consciencia, mediante el método de la…

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