Tipos de computadoras

Tipos de computadoras
• Computador analógico
• Computador híbrido
• Supercomputadora
• Computadora central
• Minicomputadora
• Microcomputadora
• Computadora de escritorio
• Computador personal
• Computadora doméstica
• Multiseat
• Computadora portátil de escritorio
• Computadora portátil
• Tablet PC
• Subportátil
• PCUltra Móvil
• PDA
• Smartphone
• Cliente: cliente ligero, cliente pesado, cliente híbrido
• Sistema empotrado

Tipos de hardware

Microcontrolador Motorola 68HC11 y chips de soporte que podrían constituir el hardware de un equipo electrónico industrial.

Una de las formas de clasificar el Hardware es en dos categorías: por un lado, el «básico», que abarca el conjunto decomponentes indispensables necesarios para otorgar la funcionalidad mínima a una computadora, y por otro lado, el «Hardware complementario», que, como su nombre indica, es el utilizado para realizar funciones específicas (más allá de las básicas), no estrictamente necesarias para el funcionamiento de la computadora.
Así es que: Un medio de entrada de datos, la unidad de procesamiento y memoria y unmedio de salida de datos constituye el «hardware básico».
Los medios de entrada y salida de datos estrictamente indispensables dependen de la aplicación: desde un punto de vista de un usuario común, se debería disponer, al menos, de un teclado y un monitor para entrada y salida de información, respectivamente; pero ello no implica que no pueda haber una computadora (por ejemplo controlando unproceso) en la que no sea necesario teclado ni monitor, bien puede ingresar información y sacar sus datos procesados, por ejemplo, a través de una placa de adquisición/salida de datos.
Las computadoras son aparatos electrónicos capaces de interpretar y ejecutar instrucciones programadas y almacenadas en su memoria, ellas consisten básicamente en operaciones aritmético-lógicas y de entrada/salida.[11]Se reciben las entradas (datos), se las procesa y almacena (procesamiento), y finalmente se producen las salidas (resultados del procesamiento). Por ende todo sistema informático tiene, al menos, componentes y dispositivos hardware dedicados a alguna de las funciones antedichas;[12] a saber:
1. Procesamiento: Unidad Central de Proceso o CPU
2. Almacenamiento: Memorias
3. Entrada:Periféricos de Entrada (E)
4. Salida: Periféricos de salida (S)
5. Entrada/Salida: Periféricos mixtos (E/S)
Desde un punto de vista básico y general, un dispositivo de entrada es el que provee el medio para permitir el ingreso de información, datos y programas (lectura); un dispositivo de salida brinda el medio para registrar la información y datos de salida (escritura); la memoria otorga lacapacidad de almacenamiento, temporal o permanente (almacenamiento); y la CPU provee la capacidad de cálculo y procesamiento de la información ingresada (transformación).[13]
Un periférico mixto es aquél que puede cumplir funciones tanto de entrada como de salida, el ejemplo más típico es el disco rígido (ya que en él se lee y se graba información y datos).

Unidad Central de ProcesamientoArtículo principal: CPU

Microprocesador de 64 bits doble núcleo, el AMD Athlon 64 X2 3600.

La CPU, siglas en inglés de Unidad Central de Procesamiento, es la componente fundamental del computador, encargada de interpretar y ejecutar instrucciones y de procesar datos.[14] En los computadores modernos, la función de la CPU la realiza uno o más microprocesadores. Se conoce como microprocesador aun CPU que es manufacturado como un único circuito integrado.
Un servidor de red o una máquina de cálculo de alto rendimiento (supercomputación), puede tener varios, incluso miles de microprocesadores trabajando simultáneamente o en paralelo (multiprocesamiento); en este caso, todo ese conjunto conforma la CPU de la máquina.
Las unidades centrales de proceso (CPU) en la forma de un único…

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