Tutorias

TEMA 1: Prevención de desordenes alimenticios

Desordenes alimenticios
Rasgos fundamentales de un desorden de alimentación:

a) Miedo irracional a engordar y un fuerte deseo de ser más delgado.
b) Insatisfacción con su propio cuerpo, usualmente acompañado de una percepción incorrecta de la forma del cuerpo.
c) Practicas poco saludables.
d) Ingesta extremista de alimentos.Anorexia.- Trastorno de alimentación, que se caracteriza por la falta anormal de ganas de comer y que puede deberse a causas psicológicas o fisiológicas.

Los tipos de anorexia son:
• Nerviosa: solo hay miedo a subir de peso.
• Restrictiva: limita severamente la ingestión de alimentos.
• Nerviosa secundaria: consecuencia de enfermedades como la esquizofrenia o depresión.
•Purgativa: comer en exceso para después inducir el vómito.
• Vigorexia: preocupación en exceso por el físico y distorsión del esquema corporal.

Bulimia.- Significa comer en exceso.
Su característica esencial es la que la persona sufre atracones compulsivos, seguidos de un gran sentimiento de culpabilidad.

Los medio de comunicación regularmente buscan un ideal de persona de poco peso, porlo cual niños y adolescentes al verlos quieren ser como ellas y buscan la forma de obtener físicos semejantes y el ideal de belleza por lo cual es alguien de bajo peso y cara bonita.

TEMA 2: Etapas de la vida y sus características

• Erik Eriksson: Nuestra vida en etapas

|Primera Infancia (0-2 años) ||
| |Segunda infancia (2,3 años) |
|Tercera infancia (0-6 años) | |
| |Niñez y preadolescencia (6-13 años)|
|Adolescencia (13-19 años) | |
| |Adulto joven (19-35 años) |
|Madurez (36-65 años) | || |Vejez (65-en adelante) |

• Primera infancia: confianza vs desconfianza
• Segunda infancia: autonomía vs duda
• Tercera infancia: iniciativa vs culpa
• Niñez y preadolescencia: destreza vs inferioridad
• Adulto joven: intimidad vs aislamiento
• Madurez:generatividad vs estancamiento
• Vejez: integridad vs desesperación

TEMA 3: El adolescente y la familia

Aspectos que determinan la armonía o desequilibrio en la familia.

• Equilibrio: comunicación, organización, atención, respeto y amor.
• Autoestima: sentimiento o idea que el individuo tiene acerca de si mismo.
• Comunicación: son los métodos que utilizan las personas paracomunicarse.
• Reglas: sirven para indicarnos como debemos actuar y que se espera de nosotros.
• Enlace en la sociedad: manera como las personas se relacionan con otros individuos ajenos a la familia.

El papel de la comunicación en la familia

Son todos aquellos métodos que utilizan las personas para expresar sus ideas y sentimientos a los demás y la correcta retroalimentación de dichainformación.

La comunicación se da en 2 niveles:

a) Verbal: todo aquello que expresamos a través del lenguaje estructurado.
b) Analógico: conjunto de posturas, gestos, silencios o pausas que de forma indirecta nos proporciona información.

En el proceso de comunicaron intervienen los siguientes elementos:

• El cuerpo.
• Los valores.
• Expectativas.
• Los…

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